In June 1805 there came a last and intolerable affront to the emperors of Austria and Russia, who at that very time were seeking to put bounds to Napoleons ambition and to redress the balance of power.
The first fortnight of Napoleons campaign of 1796 detached Sardinia from alliance with Austria and England.
By complex and secret bargaining with the court of Madrid, Bonaparte procured the cession to France Napoleons of Louisiana, in North America, and Parma; while reorganthe duke of Parma (husband of an infanta of Spain) 1zat1o~ of was promoted by him to the duchy of Tuscany, now 1t8tV.
The Spanish national rising of 1808 and thereafter the Peninsular War diverted Napoleons attention from the affairs of south Italy.
Thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was taken, at Napoleons orders, to Fontainebleau.
On the 16th of April 1814 Eugene, on hearing of Napoleons overthrow at Paris, signed an armistice at Mantua by which he was enabled to send away the French troops beyond the Alps and entrust himself to the consideration of the allies.
In Rome, after the restoration of the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no attention to Louis Napoleons advice to maintain some form of constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the administration.
Suddenly on the 14th of January 1858 Napoleons life was attempted by Felice Orsini a Mazzinian Romagnol, who believed that Napoleon was the chief obstacle to the success of the revolution in Italy.
The attempt failed and its author was caught and executed, but while t appeared at first to destroy Napoleons Italian sympathies and led to a sharp interchange of notes between Paris and Turin, the emperor was really impressed by the attempt and by Orsinis letter from prison exhorting him to intervene in Italy.
But to Napoleons statement that he could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound in honor to link his fate with that of the Italian people; and Genetal Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under him.
In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his fathers policy, and, in spite of Napoleons advice, refused to grant a constitution or to enter into an alliance with Sardinia.
On the 3rd of September the news of Sedan reached Florence, and with the fall of Napoleons empire the September convention ceased to have any value.
Thiers had consistently opposed the emperor Napoleons pro-Italian policy.
Roloff, Die Kolonialpolitik Napoleons I.
He undertook to write the Geschichte Frankreichs von der Thronbesteigung Ludwig Philipps bis zum Fall Napoleons III., but only two volumes were completed (to 1848) (2nd ed., 1881-1882).
Kleinschmidt, Die Eltern and Geschwister Napoleons I.
Larrey, Madame Mere (2 vols., Paris, 1892); Clara Tschudi, Napoleons Mutter: aus dem Norwegischen iibersetzt von H.
The Confederation of the Rhine, however, was a menace to Prussia too serious to be neglected; and Frederick Williams hesitations were suddenly ended by Napoleons contemptuous violation of Prussian territory in marching three French brigades through Ansbach without leave asked.
With the aid of Russia Frederick William held out a while longer, but after Napoleons decisive victory at Friedland (June 14, 1807) the tsar came to terms with the French emperor, sacrificing the interests of his ally.
There was, however, to be one final struggle before Napoleons supremacy was established.
- The submission of Austria had been but an expedient for gaining time; under Count Stadions auspices she set to ivork increasing and reorganizing her forces; and when it became clear from Napoleons resentment that he was meditating fresh designs against her she declared war (1809).
It was the work of a special committee of German the congress, presided over by Metternich; and, con federa- owing to the panic created by Napoleons return from lion.
The negotiations broke downon the refusal of Italy to throw over her ally, and Napoleons proposal of a European congress, to reconsider the whole settlement under the treaties of 1815, proved equally abortive.
Napoleons great military expedition in 1798 was accompanied by a scientific commission including artists and archaeologists, the results of whose labors fill several of the magnificent volumes of the, Description de lEgypte.
Although attempts were made to read Egyptian hieroglyphs so far back as the 17th century, no promise of success appeared until the discovery of the Rosetta stone in 1799 by the French engineers attached to Napoleons expedition to Egypt.
The new ministry remained in office for a year, a disastrous year which saw the culmination of Napoleons power: the ciushing of Prussia in the campaign of Jena, the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine and the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
Of Russia, fascinated by Napoleons genius and bribed Tilsit.
The year 1812 saw Napoleons invasion of Russia, and the disastrous Liverpool ministry, retreat from Moscow.
A condottiere of the Renaissance living in the I9th century, he used France, and Napoleons all those nations annexed or attracted by the Revolu- political tion, to resuscitate the Roman conception of the idea, Empire for his own benefit.
Though the vague plan for an invasion of England fell to the ground Ulm and Austerlitz obliterated Trafalgar, and the camp at Boulogne put the best military resources he had ever commanded at Napoleons disposal.
On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the kingdom of Italy, his annexation of Venetia and her ancient Adriatic empire wiping out the humiliation of 1797and the occupation of Ancona, marked a new stage in his progress towards his Roman Empire.
Thus Spain swallowed up the soldiers who were wanted for Napoleons other fields of battle, and they had to be replaced by forced levies.
Eugene de Beauharnais, Napoleons stepson, was transferred to Frankfort, and Murat carefully watched until the time should come to take him to Russia and instal him as king of Poland.
Between 1810 and 1812 Napoleons divorce of Josephine, and his marriage with Marie Louise of Austria, followed by the birth of the king of Rome, shed a brilliant light upon his future policy.
Napoleons material omnipotence could not stand against the moral force of the pope, a prisoner at Fontainebleau; and this he did not realize.
After nation.al insurrections and family recriminations came treachery from Napoleons ministers.
The defection of the military and civil aristocracy, which brought about Napoleons abdication, the refusal of a regency, and the failure of Bernadotte, who wished to resuscitate the Consulate, enabled Talleyrand, vicepresident of the senate and desirous of power, to persuade the Allies to accept the Bourbon solution of the difficulty.
After Napoleons abdication, ~nd exile to the island of Elba, came the Revolutions abdication of her conquests: the first treaty of Paris (May 30th) confirmed Frances renunciation of Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, and her return within her pre-revolutionary frontiers, save for some slight rectifications.
He entered into secret relations with Eugene Beauharnais, Napoleons envoy at Madrid, and went so far as to demand the hand of a Bonaparte princess.
As it was, Napoleons arrival in Spain was enough to restore victory to the French.
The marshals were jealous of each other, and Napoleons plans were not approved by his brother.