In the cultivated parts the land is so exceedingly fertile and productive that it sells for almost fabulous prices, and its value is still further enhanced by the discovery of manganese and copper mines in the basin of the Rion, and of the almost inexhaustible supplies of naphtha and petroleum at Baku in the Apsheron peninsula.
Naphtha is also obtained, though in much smaller quantities, in Terek and Kuban, in Tiflis and Daghestan.
In his Sylva sylvarum (1627), Francis Bacon states that " the original concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance," and observes that flame " attracts " the naphtha of Babylon " afar off."
In their application, which was unsuccessful, they stated that they had taught the Don Cossacks to " change black naphtha into white," and showed by a drawing, preserved in the archives of the Caucasian government, how this was achieved.
The " white naphtha " was sold at Nijni Novgorod without further treatment.
Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.
The best solvents for rubber are carbon bisulphide, benzol and mineral naphtha, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..
The first successful fractionation of coal-tar naphtha was devised by C. B.
Mansfield (1819-1855), who separated a benzol distilling below too from a less volatile naphtha by using a simple dephlegmator.
It was first enacted in 1855 that methylated spirit, a specific mixture of pure alcohol and wood naphtha, should be duty-free; the present law is to be found in the Customs and Inland Revenue Act of 1890, and the Finance Act (sect.
For retail purposes the "ordinary" methylated spirit is mixed with ï¿½ 357% of mineral naphtha, which has the effect of rendering it quite undrinkable.
In the first category there are two varieties: - (T) A mixture of ioo litres of spirit and 22 litres of a mixture of 4 parts of wood-naphtha and 1 of pyridine bases; this spirit, the use of which is practically limited to heating and lighting purposes, may be mixed with 50 grs.
(2) A mixture of loo litres of spirit, 14 litres of the naphtha-pyridine mixture described above, 4 litre of methyl violet solution, and from 2 to 20 litres of benzol; this fluid is limited to combustion in motors and agricultural engines.
These experiments resulted in the legislation of 1855, when the use of duty-free alcohol mixed with 10% by volume of wood naphtha, known as methylated spirits, was authorized for manufacturing purposes only.
At Denver and Ottawa the fuel used is " first distillate " oil, which is found to be cheaper than either naphtha or gas.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.
Naphtha wells are working with favourable results at Gbely in Slovakia, and researches in progress at other points (Russinia) promise results that would make Czechoslovakia independent of foreign sources in respect of petroleum, even if no surplus were produced for export.
The national debt amounted to some 40 billion crowns, against which the state itself possessed assets in the shape of forests, coal mines, the former domains of the Habsburgs, mineral, naphtha, radium and other sources of natural wealth, besides the State-owned railways.
Brunner's process consisted in forming an intimate mixture of potassium carbonate and carbon by igniting crude tartar in covered iron crucibles, cooling the mass, and then distilling it at a white heat from iron bottles, the vaporized metal being condensed beneath the surface of paraffin or naphtha contained in a copper vessel.
Manganese ore is the chief mineral, and is extracted for export to the extent of 160,000 to 180,000 tons annually, besides coal, lead and silver ores, copper, naphtha, some gold, lithographic stone and marble.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
Whereas in 1863 the output was only 550o tons of crude naphtha, in 1904 it amounted to 9,833,600 tons; but business was much injured by a serious fire in 1905.
NAPHTHA, a word originally applied to the more fluid kinds of petroleum, issuing from the ground in the Baku district of Russia and in Persia.
It is the vacOa of Dioscorides, and the naphtha, or bitumen liquidum candidum of Pliny.
By the alchemists the word was used principally to distinguish various highly volatile, mobile and inflammable liquids, such as the ethers, sulphuric ether and acetic ether having been known respectively as naphtha sulphurici and naphtha aceti.
Arsenic, saltpetre, alum, naphtha and sulphur may be collected in the volcanic districts.
At various points, especially at Hit, and from Hit southward along the edge of the Arabian plateau occur bitumen, naphtha and white petroleum springs, all of which remain undeveloped.
The industries comprise the manufacture of machinery, liqueurs and spodium or tutty, the refining of naphtha, corn-milling and the sawing of timber.
It has been ingeniously suggested in this more scientific generation that the explosion was due to the ignition of some; forgotten store of oil or naphtha, such as was said to have been stored in the temple (2 Macc. i.
This was soon put into operation in Scotland, first with the Boghead coal or Torbanehill mineral, and later with bituminous shales, and though he had to face much litigation Young successfully employed it in the manufacture of naphtha and lubricating oils, and subsequently of illuminating oils and paraffin wax, until in 1866, after the patent had expired, he transferred his works to a limited company.
Owing to its position at the junction of several routes, Kerkuk has a brisk transit trade in hides, Persian silks and cottons, colouring materials, fruit and timber; but it owes its principal importance to its petroleum and naphtha springs.
A rich naphtha-bearing zone stretches from the Luristan hills near Kermnshgh down to the Persian Gulf.
48) consisted of a platform, on which stood a large water-tube boiler, a number of concavo-convex aeroplanes arranged in tiers like shelves, each making a slight upward angle with the horizon, two very large vertical screws placed aft and propelled by steam engines, tanks for the storage of water, naphtha, &c. The boiler was especially noteworthy.
The fuel was naphtha or gasoline.
Coal, iron, sulphur, gypsum, rock-salt, lacustrine salt and naphtha are all known to exist, but only the last two are extracted.
Since the growth of the petroleum industry of Baku and the construction of the Transcaspian railway, Astrakhan has become an important commercial centre, exporting fish, caviare, sugar, metals, naphtha, cottons and woollens, and importing grain, cotton, fruit and timber, to the aggregate value of £8,250,000 with foreign countries and of £14,500,doo with the interior of Russia.
350), naphtha or petroleum is added, and some nine centuries afterwards the same substances are found forming part of mixtures described in the later receipts (which probably date from the beginning of the 13th century) of the collection known as the Liber ignium of Marcus Graecus.
The mixture, then, was composed of such materials as sulphur and naphtha with quicklime, and took fire spontaneously when wetted - whence the name of wet fire or sea fire; and portions of it were "projected and at the same time ignited by applying the hose of a water engine to the breech" of the siphon, which was a wooden tube, cased with bronze.
Working with a caking coal Wright obtained the following results: - Analysis of the tar showed that the increase of the specific gravity was due to the increase in the quantity of pitch, which rose from 28.89 to 64.08% in the residuals; whilst the ammonia, naphtha and light oils steadily fell in quantity, the creosote and anthracene oils doing the same, but to a smaller extent.
Upper and Middle Cretaceous, containing phosphates, gypsum, naphtha, sulphur and alum, attain thicknesses of 2000 and 5000 ft.