Next to Nanking and Canton, it is one of the most important vice-royalties in the empire.
In 986 it was taken by an invading force of Khitan Tatars, who adopted it as their headquarters and named it Nanking, or the "southern capital."
Nanking with their varieties.
Passing northward by Nanking and crossing the Yangtsze-kiang, Odoric embarked on the Great Canal and travelled to Cambalec (otherwise Cambaleth, Cambaluc, &c.) or Peking, where he remained for three years, attached, no doubt, to one of the churches founded by Archbishop John of Monte Corvino, at this time in extreme old age.
Formerly an integral part of China, the island of Hong-Kong was first ceded to Great Britain in 1841, and the cession was confirmed by the treaty of Nanking in 1842, the charter bearing the date 5th of April 1843.
Nanking, "the Southern Capital," was the seat of the Chinese court until the beginning of the 15th century, and it was the headquarters of the T'ai-p'ing rebels from 1853, when they took the city by assault, to 1864, when its garrison yielded to Colonel Gordon's army.
In the mountains near Nanking, coal, plumbago, iron ore and marble are found.
Shang-hai, Chin-kiang, Nanking and Su-chow are the treaty ports of the province.
In 1685 there were three dioceses, Peking, Nanking and Macao, with a hundred churches.
In 1853 Tientsin was besieged by an army of T'aip'ing rebels, which had been detached from the main force at Nanking for the capture of Peking.
They started to smuggle cargo onto the shore.
In the Nanking treaty, which was signed in the following year, Shanghai was included among the four new ports which were thrown open to trade.
On the 14th, Sun Yat-sen resigned the Presidency and in the name of the Nanking Assembly invited Yuan to accept the position of Provisional President.
The area of revolt extended northwards through the provinces of Hunan and Hupeh, and down the valley of the Yangtsze-kiang as far as the great city of Nanking, which was captured by the rebels in 1853.
In June the Tien Wang, seeing his cause was hopeless, committed suicide, and the capture of Nanking by the imperialist troops shortly afterwards brought the Taiping revolt to a conclusion.