The native dynasty (Ming) which supplanted them established their residence at Nan-king ("South Court"), but this proved so inconvenient that Yunglo, the third sovereign of the dynasty, reoccupied Ta-tu, giving it then, for the first time, the name of Pe-king ("North Court").
HU-NAN, a central province of China, bounded N.
The principal rivers of the province are: (I) The Siang-kiang, which takes its rise in the Nan-shan, and empties into the Tung-t'ing lake; it is navigable for a great distance from its mouth, and the area of its basin is 39,000 sq.
M., 2 2, 500 of which are in the province of Hu-nan and 12,500 in that of Kwei-chow; its navigation is dangerous, and only small boats are able to pass beyond Hang-kia, a mart about 180 m.
Almost all the traffic is conveyed through Hu-nan by water-ways, which lead northward to Han-kow on the Yangtsze Kiang, and Fan-cheng on the Han River, eastward to Fu-kien, southward to Kwang-tung and Kwang-si and westward to Sze-ch'uen.
24.3; Nan, A6yos, Ipovjvcs, Eocaia, Duvaµcs; according to Clemens, Strom.
The provincial capital is Nan-ch'ang Fu, on the Kan Kiang, about 35 m.
The whole province is traversed in a south-westerly and north-easterly direction by the Nan-shan ranges.
During the summer time it has water of sufficient depth for steamers of light draft as far as Nan-ch'ang, and it is navigable by native craft for a considerable distance beyond that city.
Longitude, which culminates in the Altyn Tagh, and extends eastwards in a continuous water-divide to the Nan Shan mountains, north of the Koko Nor basin.
The Kuen-lun, Nan-shan and the mountain ranges of southern China are, perhaps, of earlier date, but nevertheless they lie in the same belt.
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
As early as the 12th century B.C., Chinese chronicles, which are almost the only source for the history of Cambodia till the 5th century A.D., mention a region called Fou-nan, in later times appearing under the name of Tchin-la; embracing the basin of the Menam, it extended eastwards to the Mekong and may be considered approximately coextensive with the Khmer kingdom.
The Tali-Bhamo caravan route, described by Colborne Baker, crosses the river by one of those iron suspension bridges which are a feature of Yun-nan, at a height of 4700 ft.
Thence it turns north-west, following the Great Wall for over 300 m.; it then crosses the plateau so as to separate Mongolia from the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang (Hari-su-sin-tsiang, which includes the Nan-shan highlands and eastern Turkestan), and from Dzungaria, reaching the Chinese or Ektagh Altai in 46° 30' N., 92° 50' E.
Other important contributors to this sphere of literature were Isho' bar Nan (t827/8), John bar Zo`bi (beginning of the 13th century), Jacob bar Shakko (f1241), and the great Nestorian scholar `Abadisho' (f 1318).
From the 10th to the 13th century (960-1272) the city, whose real name was then Ling-nan, was the capital of southern China and the seat of the Sung dynasty, which was dethroned by the Mongolians shortly before Marco Polo's visit.
By Ho-nan, E.
The southern half of the province, that portion south of the Yangtsze Kiang, forms part of the Nan-shan, or hilly belt of the south-eastern provinces, and produces, besides cotton, coal and iron ore, large quantities of green tea.
WUCHANG, the capital of the combined provinces of Hup-eh and Hu-nan, China.
Yun-nan, once formed an independent kingdom which extended into E.
The principal rivers are the Yangtszekiang (locally known as the Kinsha-kiang=Golden Sand river), which enters Yun-nan at its N.W.
This last-named river is navigable from the Gulf of Tongking to Man-hao, a town ten days' journey from Yun-nan Fu.
Broad, and the other near Yun-nan Fu, which measures from 70 to 80 m.
Besides run-nan Fu, the capital, the province contains thirteen prefectural cities, several of which - Teng-ch`uen Fu, Ta-li Fu, Yung-ch`ang Fu, Ch`u-siung Fu and Lin-gan Fu, for example - are situated in the valley plains.
Yun-nan Fu is connected by railway (1910) with Tongking.
The line hich starts from Haiphong runs, in Yun-nan, via Mengtsze hsien (a great commercial centre), to the capital.
The road from Yun-nan Fu to Bhamo in Burma via Ta-li Fu (12 days), Teng-yueh Chow or Momein (8 days) and Manwyne - beyond Ta-li Fu it is a difficult mountain route.
Yun-nan with Tibet.
Yun-nan is appreciated throughout the empire.
The chief wealth of Yun-nan consists, however, in its minerals.
Yun-nan, long independent, was subdued by Kublai Khan, but was not finally incorporated in the empire until the 17th century.
The opening of Christian (Protestant) mission work in Yun-nan began in 1877, and was one result of the murder of Mr Margary (see China, History, § D).
Davies, Yun-nan, the Link between India and the Yangtze (Cambridge, 1909); A.
Yun-Nan Fu >>
Inochi nan ken J
Yin, Meo and Musur have Yunnanese characteristics, are met with in the Shan States north of Siam and in Yun-nan, and are supposed to have found their way into northern Siam since the beginning of the 19th century.
The more important places of northern Siam include Chieng Mai, the capital of the north, Chieng Rai, near the northern frontier; Lampun, also known as Labong (originally Haribunchai), the first Lao settlement in Siam; Lampang, Tern, Nan and Pre, each the seat of a Lao chief and of a Siamese commissioner; Utaradit, Pichai, Pichit, Pechabun and Raheng, the last of importance as a timber station, with Phitsnulok, Sukhotai, Swankalok, Kampeng Pet and Nakhon Sawan, former capitals of Khmer-Siamese kingdoms, and at present the headquarters of provincial governments.
At any rate the Astintagh, whether it is the principal continuation of the Kuen-lun or only a subsidiary flanking system, is itself the westward continuation of the Nan-shan or Southern Mountains, which reach down far into China (to 113° E.).
BE.) The Nan-shan Highlands overlook Tsaidam on the N.E.
The Nan-shan highlands abut upon the highlands of the Chinese province of Kansuh, and near the great northward bend of the Hwang-ho they meet the escarpments by which the Great Khingan and the In-shan ranges are continued, and by which the Mongolian plateau steps down to the lowlands of China.
The Nan-shan highlands have their foot on the Mongolian plateau (average altitude, 4000 ft.), i.e.
Generally speaking, the Nan-shan highlands are a region raised 12,000 to 14,000 ft.
In the central Nan-shan it is only the north-eastern slopes that bear forests.
Chi-Nan Fu >>
To this disturbing cause was added another in 1861 by the spread of the Mahommedan rebellion in Yun-nan into some of the south-western districts of the province.
Before the rebellion Yun-nan Fu had a prosperous aspect; the shops were large and well supplied with native silken goods, saddlery, &c., while English cotton, Russian cloths and raw cotton from Burma constituted the main foreign merchandise.
The bofindary between the mountains and the piedmont belt is called the Blue Ridge all along its length; and although the nan:e is fairly appropriate in northern Virginia, it is not deserved in the Carolinas, where the ridge is only an escarpment descending abruptly 1000 or 1500 ft~ from the valleys of the mountain belt to the rolling uplands of the piedmont belt; and as such it is a form of unusual occurrence.
The Turkestan Platycercomys (or Pygeretmus) has a lancet-shaped tail and no premolars; while Cardiocranus of the Nan-shan district of Central Asia has a similar type of tail, but short ears and a peculiarly triangular skull.