Nahr el-Furat or Frat), well known to occidentalists as the Euphrates, from its having been the boundary of the Roman empire, is regarded also by Orientals as the main stream.
The Nahr Malk or royal river, modern Radhwaniya, leaves the Euphrates five leagues below this and joins the Tigris three leagues below Ctesiphon; while the Kutha, modern Habl-Ibrahim, leaving the Euphrates three leagues below the Malk joins the Tigris ten leagues below Ctesiphon.
In the time of the Arabs these were the chief canals, and the cuts from the main channels of the Nahr `Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr Malk (or Nahr Malcha), and Nahr Kutha, reticulating the entire country between the rivers, converted it into a continuous and luxuriant garden.
Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
That following the northern slope is the Nahr al-'Asi (see Orontes) into which, when it has turned sharply towards the sea, flow some tributary streams from the Commagenian divide on the north.
7.4),whose name was changed into Philadelphia by Ptolemy Philadelphus, a large and strong city with an acropolis, was situated on both sides of a branch of the Jabbok, bearing at the present day the name of Nahr 'Amman, the river of Ammon, whence the designation "city of waters" (2 Sam.
The three chief of them carried off the waters of the Euphrates to the Tigris above Babylon, - the Zabzallat canal (or Nahr Sarsar) running from Faluja to Ctesiphon, the Kutha canal from Sippara to Madain, passing Tell Ibrahim or Kutha on the way, and the King's canal or Ar-Malcha between the other two.
The river Adonis is the Nahr alIbrahim, which flows near the town.
The chief perennial streams, beginning from the north, are the Nahr Akkar, N.
Kadisha, "the holy river" (the valley of which begins in the immediate neighbourhood of the highest summits, and rapidly descends in a series of great bends till the river reaches the sea at Tripoli), Wadi el-Joz (falling into the sea at Batrun), Wadi Fidar, Nahr Ibrahim (the ancient Adonis, having its source in a recess of the great mountain amphitheatre where the famous sanctuary Apheca, the modern Afka, lay), Nahr el-Kelb (the ancient Lycus), Nahr Beirut (the ancient Magoras, entering the sea at Beirut), Nahr Damur (ancient Tamyras), Nahr el-'Auwali (the ancient Bostrenus, which in the upper part of its course is joined by the Nahr el-Baruk).
The 'Auwali and the Nahr el-Zaherani, the only other considerable streams before we reach the Litany, flow northeast to south-west, in consequence of the interposition of a ridge subordinate and parallel to the central chain.
A number of valleys run to the north and north-east, among them that of the Nahr el-Kebir, the Eleutherus of the ancients, which rises in the Jebel el-Abiaei on the eastern slope of Lebanon, and afterwards, skirting the district, flows westward to the sea.
In its lower part the Litany bears the name of Nahr elKasimiya.
Two large tributaries from the N., the Afrin and Kara Su, here reach it through the former Lake of Antioch, which is now drained through an artificial channel (Nahr al-Kowsit).
During the early middle ages this region was also known as Ma wara '1 Nahr or Ma-vera-un-nahr, the meaning of which is given in the alternative classical title of Transoxiana.
North in the `Ain Khalil ar-Rahman, but receives also the waters of the united Nahr al-Kut (in its upper course formerly the Daisan, /lcipros) from Edessa and Kopru Dagh, and the Jullab from Tektek Dagh about as much farther north.
PHOENICIA, in ancient geography, the name given to that part of the seaboard of Syria which extends from the Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebir) in the north to Mt Carmel in the south, a distance of rather more than two degrees of latitude.
Nahr el-Kasimiyeh, or a town)?
Reconquered Phoenicia as far as Beira, and carved three tablets on the rock beside the Nahr el-Kelb to commemorate his victories; under the XIXth and XXth Dynasties this seems to have remained the northern limit of the Egyptian Empire.
By the north end of the Lebanon at the Nahr el-Kebir (Eleutherus), on the N.
By Mt Casius, Antioch and the Nahr el-`Asi (Orontes).
In Syria there are tablets of conquest on the rocks at the mouth of the Nahr el Keib.
Among the perennial streams may be mentioned the Na'aman, south of Acre; the Mukatta` Kishon, at Haifa; the Nahr ez-Zerka, sometimes called the Crocodile River - so named from the crocodiles still occasionally to be seen in it; the Nahr el-Falik; the `Aujeh a few miles north of Jaffa and the Nahr Rubin.
The chief valleys of this region are the Nahr Na'aman and its branches, which runs into the sea south of Acre, and the Wadi Mukatta`, or Kishon, which joins the sea at Haifa.
Among these the most important are the Wadi Selman (Valley of Aijalon) which seems to have been the principal route to Jerusalem in ancient times; the Wadi Isma`in south of this, along which runs the modern carriage road from Jaffa to Jerusalem; and the Wadi es-Surar, a higher section of the bed of the Nahr Rubin, along which now runs the railway line; farther to the south we may mention the Wadi es-Sunt, which opens up the country from Tell es-Safi (Gath?) eastward.
The crocodile is seen (but now very rarely) in the Nahr ez-Zerka.
This river, which was otherwise called Drakon, Typhon or Ophites, is known at the present day as the " river of the rebel " (Nahr El-`Asi; Baudissin ii.
From Hillah, on the Nahr Hindieh, or Hindieh canal, formerly known as "the Euphrates of Borsippa," and even during the Arabic period called "the river of Birs."
As the Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge, its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or "rivers," the name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana.