2, 120 ff.; Hagen, in Delitzsch and Haupt, Beitrage zur Assyriologie, ii., 1894, where the chronicle of Nabonidus is also published anew with a much improved translation) he calls his ancestors, Teispes, Cyrus I.
And Cambyses I., "kings of Anshan," and the same title is given to him in the inscriptions and in the chronicle of Nabonidus of Babylon before his victory over Astyages.
Their kingdom cannot have been of large extent, as Nabonidus in a contemporary inscription (Cylinder from Abu Habba, VR.
The army of Nabonidus was defeated; Babylon itself attempted no resistance, but surrendered on the 16th Tishri (loth of October) 539, to the Persian general Gobryas (Gaubaruva, see the chronicle of the reign of Nabonidus; the name Gobryas is preserved also by Xenophon, Cyrop. vii.
4.24); it is possible that the Chaldaean priests, who were hostile to Nabonidus, betrayed the town.
(2argani-Sarali), whose date is given by Nabonidus, the last Semitic king of Babylonia (555-537 B.e.), as 3800 B.C., which is perhaps too old by 700 or 1000 years.'
This fact is again attested by Nabonidus, whose record 5 mentions that the Istar worship of Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit, another personification of the Istar idea, whose shrine was at Sippar.
1 Prince, Nabonidus, p. v.
Nabonidus (Nabunaid), who was more of an antiquarian than a politician, and spent his time in excavating the older temples of his country and ascertaining the names of their builders, tells us that Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon of Akkad, lived 3200 years before himself (i.e.
The raid of the Elamite king Kutur-Nakhkhunte is placed by Assur-bani-pal 1635 years before his own conquest of Susa, and Khammurabi is said by Nabonidus to have preceded Burna-buryas by 700 years.
The date of Sargon is placed by Nabonidus at 3800 B.C. He was the son of Itti-Bel, and a legend related how he had been born in concealment and sent adrift in an ark of bulrushes on the waters of the Euphrates.
Of the reign of the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus, however, and the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, we now have a fair amount of information.'
This is chiefly derived from a chronological tablet containing the annals of Nabonidus, which is supplemented by an inscription of Nabonidus, in which he recounts his restoration of the temple of the Moon-god at Harran, as well as by a proclamation of Cyrus issued shortly after his formal recognition as king of Babylonia.
It was in the sixth year of Nabonidus (549 B.C.) - or perhaps in 553 - that Cyrus, " king of Anshan" in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, king of " the Manda " or Scythians, at Ecbatana.
Meanwhile Nabonidus has established a camp at Sippara, near the northern frontier of his kingdom, his son - probably the Belshazzar of Invasion other inscriptions - being in command of the arm by Cyrus.
Nabonidus fled to Babylon, whither he was pursued by Gobryas, the governor of Kurdistan, and on the 16th of Tammuz, two days after the capture of Sippara, " the soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon without fighting."
Nabonidus was dragged out of his hiding-place, and Kurdish guards were placed at the gates of the great temple of Bel, where the services continued without intermission.
Gobryas was now made governor of the province of Babylon, and a few days afterwards the son of Nabonidus, according to the most probable reading, died.
Cyrus now claimed to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings and the avenger of Bel-Merodach, who was wrathful at the impiety of Nabonidus in removing the images of the local gods from their ancestral shrines to his capital Babylon.
Nabonidus, in fact, had excited a strong feeling against himself by attempting to centralize the religion of Babylonia in the temple of Merodach (Marduk) at Babylon, and while he had thus alienated the local priesthoods the military party despised him on account of his antiquarian tastes.
In 1891, with the object of getting the total duration of the dynasties to agree with the chronological system of Berossus and with the statement of Nabonidus concerning Khammurabi's date, Peiser proposed to emend the figure given by the Kings' List for the length of Dynasty III.
These considerable reductions in the dates of the earlier dynasties of Babylonia necessarily react upon our estimate of the age of Babylonian civilization The very high dates of 5000 or 6000 B.C., formerly assigned by many writers to the earliest remains of the Sumerians and tl e Babylonian Semites, 12 depended to a great extent on the statem nt of Nabonidus that 3200 years separated his own age from th: t of Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon of Agade; for to Sargon, on this statement alone, a date of 3800 B.C. has usually been assigned.
The statement of Nabonidus as not, however, been universally accepted.
Lehmann-Haupt .uggested an emendation of the text, reducing the number by a thousand years; 14 while Winckler has regarded the statement of Nabonidus as an uncritical exaggeration.
15 Obviously the scribes of Nabonidus were not anxious to diminish the antiquity of the foundation-inscription of Naram-Sin, which their royal master had unearthed;.
But, though we may refuse to accept the accuracy of this figure of Nabonidus, it is not possible at present to fix a definite date for the early kings of Agade.
But the Babylonian Empire followed upon traditional lines and thrust back Egypt, and Nabonidus (553 B.C.) claims his vassals as far as Gaza.
Before long, however, the overthrow of Astyages by Cyrus cleared Mesopotamia, and Nabonidus (Nabu-naid) was able, drawing on the resources of the whole of Syria for the purpose, to restore the famous temple of Sin at Harran, where a few years later he erected in memory of his mother, who seems to have been a priestess there, the stele published in 1907 by Pognon.
29, 37, confirmed by a stele of Nabonidus found in Babylon: Scheil in Recueil de travaux, xviii.; Messerschmidt, "Die Inschrift der Stele Nabonaids," in Mitteilungen der vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, i., 1896).
According to the Chaldean Nabonidus (553) all the kings from Gaza to 'the Euphrates assisted in his buildings, and the Chaldean policy generally appears to have been favourable towards faithful vassals.
In the inscriptions of Nabonidus the name is written Ishtuvegu (cylinder from Abu Habba V R 64, col.
From the inscriptions of Nabonidus we learn that Cyrus, king of Anshan (Susiana), began war against him in 553 B.C.; in 550, when Astyages marched against Cyrus, his troops rebelled, and he was taken prisoner.
A little supplementary information may be gleanec from the inscriptions of King Nabonidus of Babylon (.5539
The beginnings of the Median monarchy can scarcely go farther back than 640 B.C. To all appearance, the insurrection against Assyria must have prcceeded from the desert tribe of the Manda, mentioned by Sargon: for Nabonidus invariably describes the Median kings as kings of the Manda.
At first Nabonidus of Babylon hailec the fall of the Medes with delight and utilized the opportunit) by occupying Harran (Carrhae).
Cyrus and hi~ Persians paid little heed to the treaties which the Median kink had concluded with the other powers; and the result was I great coalition against him, embracing Nabonidus of Babylon Amasis of Egypt, Croesus of Lydia, and the Spartans, whosi highly efficient army seemed to the Oriental states of great value In the spiing of 546 B.C., Croesus opened the attack.
In 539 Nabonidus was defeated and Babylon occupied, while, with the Chaldean Empire, Syria and Palestine also became Persian (see JEws).
After his defeat of Nabonidus, Cyrus ~ proclaimed himself King of Babel; and the same title was born by Cambyses, Smerdis and Darius.
There can be no doubt that the author of Daniel thought that Belshazzar (q.v.), who has now been identified beyond all question with Belg ar-uzur, the son of Nabonidus, the last Semitic king of Babylon, was the son of Nebuchadrezzar, and that Belshazzar attained the rank of king.'
Nabonidus, the father of Belshazzar, was the son of a nobleman Nabu-baladsu-igbi, who was in all probability not related to any of the preceding kings of Babylon.
Had Nabonidus been descended from Nebuchadrezzar he could hardly have failed in his records, which we possess, to have boasted of such a connexion with the greatest Babylonian monarch; yet in none of his inscriptions does he trace his descent beyond his father.
It is known that Cyrus became master of Media by conquering Astyages, and that the troops of the king of Persia capturing Babylon took Nabonidus prisoner with but little difficulty.
2 Certain tablets published by Strassmaier, bearing date continuously from Nabonidus to Cyrus, show that neither Belshazzar nor "Darius the Mede" could have had the title "king of Babylon."