5 See, especially, on the mystics of Safed in Upper Galilee, S.
He adapted in his own interest the theory (constantly recurrent among mystics and innovators, from the time of Abbot Joachim to the present day) of three dispensations, the old, with its revelation of the Father, 'the newer with its revelation of the Son, and the final or era of the Spirit.
Distinguished the other Spanish mystics, St Theresa, Luis de Leon or Raimon Lull.
India consequently has always been the fertile mother of practical mystics and devotees.
In this he agrees with the speculative mystics everywhere, and differentiates himself from the scholastics who followed him.
Van Helmont (1577-1644) was the last distinguished investigator who professed actually to have changed mercury into gold, though impostors and mystics of various kinds continued to claim knowledge of the art long after his time.
From his earliest years he had been deeply impressed with the piety, beauty and thoughtfulness of the writings of the Christian mystics, but it was not till after his accidental meeting with the works of Boehme, about 1734, that pronounced mysticism appeared in his works.
Its legitimate successor was Manichaeism, which afforded a refuge to those mystics who had been shaken in faith, but not converted, by the polemics of the Church against their religion.
Of the seven degrees, those mystics not yet beyond the third, Miles, were not in full communion, and were called inrnpETOUVTES (servants); while the fourth degree, Leo, admitted them into the class of the fully initiate, the (participants).
He established an extraordinary reputation; his personality had a winning attractiveness; and he founded a school of mystics who powerfully affected Judaism after the master's death.
Eckhart was a distinguished son of the Church; E but in reading his works we feel at once that we have passed into quite a different sphere of thought from that of the churchly mystics; we seem to leave the cloister behind and to breathe a freer atmosphere.
It has been customary for Protestant writers to represent the mystics of Germany and Holland as precursors of the Reformation.
But Mystics it would be false to say that these men protested against the doctrines of the Church in the way the Reformers felt themselves called upon to do.
The gloom and harshness of these Spanish mystics are absent from the tender, contemplative spirit of Francois de Sales (1567-1622); and in the quietism Fof Mme Guyon (1648-1717) and Miguel de Molinos (1627-1696) there is again a sufficient implication of mystical doctrine to rouse the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
On the German mystics see W.
And this is true not only of the dogmatic parties; solitary monks and ambitious priests, hard-headed critical exegetes,' allegorists, mystics, all found something congenial in his writings.
See John Campbell Oman, The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (1903), and Indian Census Reports.
The "everlasting gospel" of Joachim of Floris was a different thing from the announcement of Christ's glorious return in the clouds of heaven; the "age of the spirit" which mystics and spiritualists expected contained traits which must be characterized as "modern"; and the "kingdom" of the Anabaptists in Munster was a Satanic caricature of that kingdom in which the Christians of the 2nd century looked for a peaceful Sabbath rest.
During the session of the council for the union of the Greek and Latin churches at Florence in 1 439, Cosimo had made acquaintance with Gemistos Plethon, the Neo-Platonic sage of Mistra, whose discourses upon Plato and the Alexandrian mystics so fascinated the learned society of Florence that they named him the second Plato.
" The mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress towards God, demanding a state of ecstasy."4 As a result, some of the finest specimens of Jewish devotional literature and some of the best types of Jewish individual character have been Kabbalist.
Erigena is really of the spiritual kindred of the Neoplatonists and Christian mystics rather than of the typical Scholastic doctors, and, in fact, the activity of Scholasticism is mainly confined within the limits of the 11th and the 14th centuries.
The mystics held aloof from both, and devoted themselves to the practical work of preaching and edification.
A considerable legend has attached itself to Nicholas through the persistent but mistaken identification of him with the mysterious "Friend of God from the Oberland," the "double" of Rulman Merswin, the Strassburg banker who was one of the leaders of the 14th-century German mystics known as the Friends of God.
From his power of assuming whatever shape he pleased Proteus came to be regarded, especially by the Orphic mystics, as a symbol of the original matter from which the world was created.
Alongside Bernard may be placed the two mystics of St Victor, Hugo and Richard, and a little later Peter Waldo of Lyons, who, like Henry of Lausanne, preached a plain message to the poor and lowly.
For an account of the Jewish mystics at Safed see S.
He is the first of a series of theological mystics which continued through every century of the middle ages.
Mickiewicz and Slowacki were both more or less mystics, but even more we may assign this characteristic to Sigismund Krasinski, who was born in 1812 at Paris, and died there in 1859.
Thus Fichte, Spinoza, Jakob Boehme and the Mystics, and finally, the great Greek thinkers with their Neoplatonic, Gnostic, and Scholastic commentators, give respectively colouring to particular works.
Hadland Davis, The Persian Mystics: Jami (1908).
At the same time the spiritual teaching of the mystics awakened in many minds an aspiration which the Church, in its corrupt state, could not satisfy, and which was in any case unfavourable to an external authority.
The philosophers in their way, like the mystics of Persia (the Sufites) in another, tended towards a theory of the communion of man with the spiritual world, which may be considered a protest against the practical and almost prosaic definiteness of the creed of Mahomet.
The general tendency of Abelard's thought was suspiciously regarded by contemporary orthodoxy; 2 and the over-subtlety of the last-mentioned distinction provoked vehement replies from orthodox mystics of the age.
These statements, especially the last, show us the connexion between the Lollards and those mystics of the 14th century, such as Tauler and Ruysbroeck, who accepted the teachings of Nicholas of Basel, and formed themselves into the association of the Friends of God.
As the admission of converts is no longer permitted, the faithful are enjoined to keep their doctrine secret from the profane; and in order that their allegiance may not bring them into danger, they are allowed (like Persian mystics) to make outward profession of whatever religion is dominant around them.
This sect, based upon the theories of various German religious mystics, and having for its primary object the spiritualization of the matrimonial state, was founded in 1846 by the Rev. Henry James Prince, a clergyman of the Church of England (1811-1899).
1338; 738 A.u.), the Anfs-ul Arifin, or Friend of the Mystics, by I~sim (Qasim)-i-Anwar (d.
Joseph von Gdrres read the medieval mystics in the light of the newer mysticism of Schelling.
C. Oman, Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India, p. 273) remarks:" Sadlzuism, whether perpetuating the peculiar idea of the efficiency of austerities for the acquisition of far-reaching powers over natural phenomena, or bearing its testimony to the belief in the indispensableness of detachment from the world as a preparation for the ineffable joy of ecstatic communion with the Divine Being, has undoubtedly tended to keep before men's eyes, as the highest ideal, a life of purity, self-restraint, and contempt of the world and human affairs.
C. Oman, Indian Life, Religious and Social (London, 1879); The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (London, 1903); The Brahmans, Theists and Muslims of India (London, 1907); S.
From scepticism he escapes by accepting the doctrine of the mystics that God can be apprehended by intuition (intuitio, speculatio), an exalted state of the intellect in which all limitations disappear.
Among Egyptian mystics the most famous as authors are the poet Ibn al-Farid, d.