In untreated PKU patients, abnormally high phenylalanine levels in the blood and brain can produce nerve cells with deformed axons and dendrites and cause imperfections in the myelin sheath referred to as hypomyelination and demylenation.
Krabbe disease: an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme galactosylcereamidase, resulting in destruction of myelin, the fatty material that surrounds and insulates many of the nerves.
White matter-A substance, composed primarily of myelin fibers, found in the brain and nervous system that protects nerves and allows messages to be sent to and from the brain and various parts of the body.
A 2003 study found that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder could have similar genetic causes that arise from certain problems with genes associated with myelin development in the central nervous system.
A University of Michigan study found that exposure to the measles virus could interfere with the proper development of myelin, a protein found in the area that protects the nerve fibers in the brain.
This is due to the fact that the fibers in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex have not been completely covered in myelin, the protein and lipid sheath that aids in processing neural signals.
In secondary encephalitis, symptoms usually begin five to ten days after the onset of the disease itself and are related to the breakdown of the myelin sheath that covers nerve fibers.
A little later the breaking down of the whole axon, both axis cylinder and myelin sheath alike, seems to occur simultaneously throughout its entire length distal to the place of severance.
The complex fat of the myelin becomes altered chemically, while the other components of the sheath break down.
Some other glycerides isolated from natural sources are analogous in composition to tristearin, but with this difference, that the three radicals which replace hydrogen in glycerin are not all identical; thus kephalin, myelin and lecithin are glycerides in which two hydrogens are replaced by fatty acid radicals, and the third by a complex phosphoric acid derivative.