(site and monuments); British Museum, Excavations in Cyprus (London, 190o; Mycenaean tombs); G.
Greek Mainland.-Exploration of 'the Mycenaean sites of the Greek mainland have shown that beneath the characteristic painted pottery which is so plainly derived from the late Minoan wares, there is no unbroken sequence of development such as is found at Cnossos and elsewhere in Crete: that is to say, the Mycenaean civilization was not native to Greece proper, but was imposed there in a mature form upon a more backward culture.
AEGEAN CIVILIZATION, the general term for the prehistoric civilization, previously called "Mycenaean" because its existence was first brought to popular notice by Heinrich Schliemann's excavations at Mycenae in 1876.
Among the foundations were discovered fragments of " Mycenaean " pottery.
The earliest Cretan settlements in Greece belong to the end of the third Middle Minoan period, about 1800 s.c. Pre-Mycenaean civilization in Greece varied in different localities.
The results show that Thessaly was free from Cretan or other southern influence until the late Mycenaean period developed in isolation an advanced neolithic culture until the rest of Greece and the Aegean Is.
Paphos was believed to have been founded either by the Arcadian Agapenor, returning from the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.), or by his reputed contemporary Cinyras, whose clan retained royal privileges down to the Ptolemaic conquest of Cyprus in 295 B.C., and held the Paphian priesthood till the Roman occupation in 58 B.C. The town certainly dates back to the close of the Mycenaean Bronze age, and had a king Eteandros among the allies of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C.'
She was worshipped, under the form of a conical stone, in an open-air sanctuary of the usual Cypriote type (not unlike those of Mycenaean Greece), the general form of which is known from representations on late gems, and on Roman imperial coins;' its ground plan was discovered by excavations in 1888.2 It suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was rebuilt more than once; in Roman times it consisted of an open court, irregularly quadrangular, with porticos and chambers on three sides, and a gateway through them on the east.
- Numerous traces of the " Mycenaean " epoch have recently been brought to light in Athens and its" neighbourhood.
Other " Mycenaean " landmarks have been laid bare at Eleusis, Thoricus, Halae and Aphidna.
In view of the ancient law which forbade burial within the city, the tombs within the circuit of the city walls must either be earlier than the time of Themistocles or several centuries later; in the similar rocktombs on the neighbouring slopes of the Acropolis and Areopagus both Mycenaean and Dipylon pottery have been found.
It also possesses the famous collection of prehistoric antiquities found by Schliemann at Tiryns and Mycenae, other " Mycenaean " objects discovered at Nauplia and in Attica, as well as the still earlier remains excavated by Tsountas in the Cyclades and by the British School at Phylakopi in Melos; terra-cottas from Tanagra and Asia immense building, however, which was restored in 1896 and the following years, was that constructed in Pentelic marble about A.D.
Here the excavations of the British school cleared many houses, including a palace of "Mycenaean" type; there is also a town wall.
But even here it seems impossible to deny some influence coming from the Aegean area, and Scythic beasts are very like certain products of Mycenaean and early Ionic art.
- The discoveries made at Mycenae and other centres of "Mycenaean" civilization, and those of more recent date due to the excavations of Dr A.
The essential feature both of male and female dress during the "Minoan " and " Mycenaean " periods was the loin-cloth, which is best represented by the votive terra-cotta statuettes from Petsofa in Crete discovered by Professor J.
(Mackenzie); Tsountas and Manatt, The Mycenaean Age, ch.
These are pre-Mycenaean, and their only ornament is scratches, into which white matter has been pressed.
And now, thanks to the efforts of a large company of workers, notably Dr Arthur Evans and his associates in Cretan exploration, we are coming to speak with some confidence not merely of a Mycenaean but of a pre-Mycenaean Age.
Here, then, is direct evidence that the Aegean peoples of the Mycenaean Age knew how to write, and it is no longer necessary to assume that the verses of the Iliad were dependent on mere verbal transmission for any such period 'as has been supposed.
But the excavations that have given us a knowledge of the Mycenaean Age have proved conclusively, not alone that civilization existed in Greece in an early day, but that this civilization was closely linked with the civilization of Egypt.
Not only have antiquities been found in Crete that point to Egyptian inspiration, but quite recently Professor Petrie has found at Tel el-Amarna Mycenaean pottery.
It is demonstrated, then, that as early as the beginning of the r4th century B.C. the Mycenaean civilization was in touch with the ancient civilization of Egypt.
For the character of Mycenaean art and of the antiquities found at Mycenae see Aegean Civilization.
The device is a translation into stone of a type not uncommon in gem-cutter's and goldsmith's work of the " Mycenaean " age.
Outside the circle, especially to the south of it, numerous remains of houses of the Mycenaean age have been found, and others, terraced up at various levels, occupy almost the whole of the Acropolis.
On the summit, approached by a well-preserved flight of steps, are the remains of a palace of the Mycenaean age, similar to that found at Tiryns, though not so complicated or extensive.
Above them are the foundations of a Doric temple, probably dating from the last days of Mycenaean independence in the 5th century.
Excavations made in1884-1885by Schliemann and DOrpfeld over part of the rock on which Tiryns stood have exposed a most interesting building, which offers the most complete example of a palace of the Mycenaean age in Greece.
Manatt, The Mycenaean Age (London, 1897).
In the local museum are four Mycenaean vases, one found in the island and another on the adjacent island of Mazzorbo, proving direct intercourse with the Aegean Sea in prehistoric times.
The second period (150o-l000 B.C.) shows a great increase in the use of bronze, and the introduction of gold and silver, and of imported Mycenaean vases.
Egyptian objects of the age of the XVIIIth Dynasty are found in the Greek islands and on the mainland among remains of the Mycenaean epoch, and on the other hand the products of the workshops of Crete and other centres of that culture are found in Egypt and are figured as tribute of the Keftiu in the tomb-paintings, though we have no information of any war with or conquest of that people.
Traditionally, Salamis was founded after the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.) by Teucer from Salamis, the island off Attica, but there was an important Mycenaean colony somewhat earlier.
Western Greece appears to have been more barbarous than Thessaly, and its outward connexions, if any, before the Mycenaean period, were with Italy rather than with Greece.
Mycenaean pottery is found to contain elements which do not belong to Crete, but which must be attributed to the influence of the fabrics established in Greece before it.
It is probable that the island was not dorized before the 9th century B.C. One of the earliest facts known to us in its history is its membership in the League of Calauria, which included, besides Aegina, Athens, the Minyan (Boeotian) Orchomenos, Troezen, Hermione, Nauplia and Prasiae, and was probably an organization of states which were still Mycenaean, for the suppression of the piracy which had sprung up in the Aegean as a result of the decay of the naval supremacy of the Mycenaean princes.
It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age.
His chief publications are: Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script (1896); Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script (1898); The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult (1901); Scripta Minoa (1909 et seq.); and reports on the excavations at Knossos.
Back to the Mycenaean age (c. 1400-1100 B.C.) and seem to mark an Aegean colony: 2 but in historic times Citium is the chief centre of Phoenician influence in Cyprus.
Winter at Idrias have resulted in the discovery of Late-Mycenaean and Geometric pottery.
The later phase, which follows on the destruction of the Cnossian palace, and corresponds with the diffused Mycenaean style of mainland Greece and elsewhere, is already partly decadent.
Turning to the mainland of Greece we see that the astonishing remains of a highly developed prehistoric civilization, which Schliemann first brought to light in 1876 at Mycenae, Minoan and which from those discoveries received the general influence on main= name of " Mycenaean," in the main represent a trans land of marine offshoot from the Minoan stock.
Greek About the same time the evidences of imports of settle- Late Minoan or " Mycenaean " fabrics in Egypt ments in definitely cease.
Biliotti many fine painted vases of styles which were called later the third and fourth "Mycenaean"; but these, bought by John Ruskin, and presented to the British Museum, excited less attention than they deserved, being supposed to be of some local Asiatic fabric of uncertain date.
It was recognized that the character of both the fabric and the decoration of the Mycenaean objects was not that of any well-known art.
A relation between objects of art described by Homer and the Mycenaean treasure was generally allowed, and a correct opinion prevailed that, while certainly posterior, the civilization of the Iliad was reminiscent of the Mycenaean.
From 1886 dates the finding of Mycenaean sepulchres outside the Argolid, from which, and from the continuation of Tsountas's exploration of the buildings and lesser graves at Mycenae, a large treasure, independent of Schliemann's princely gift, has been gathered into the National Museum at Athens.
During the excavations on the Acropolis at Athens, terminated in 1888, many potsherds of the Mycenaean style were found; but Olympia had yielded either none, or such as had not been recognized before being thrown away, and the temple site at Delphi produced nothing distinctively Aegean.
In the later period a peculiar "bee-hive" tomb became common, sometimes wholly or partly excavated, sometimes (as in the magnificent Mycenaean "Treasuries") constructed domewise.
The richness of the Aegean capitals and columns may be judged by those from the "Treasury of Atreus" now set up in the British Museum; and of the friezes we have examples in Mycenaean and Cnossian fragments, and Cnossian paintings.
Manatt, The Mycenaean Age (1897); G.
Evans, "Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult" in Journ.