No serious mutinies have ever occurred in the Italian army, and the only results of the propaganda were occasional meetings of hoohgans, where Hervist sentiments were expressed and applauded, and a few minor disturbances among reservists unexpectedly called back to the colors.
Their mutinies were frequent and dangerous, and at last, in 1682, an unusually serious outbreak led Peter the Great to compass the abolition of the force.
Mutinies occurred, it is true, during the next few weeks in Kronstadt and Sevastopol, and in December there was streetfighting for several days in Moscow, but such serious disorders were speedily suppressed, and thereafter the revolutionary manifestations were confined to mass meetings, processions with red flags, attempts on the lives of officials and policemen, robberies under arms and agrarian disturbances.
As the British fleet had abandoned the Mediterranean since November 1796 and had recently been disorganized by two serious mutinies, Bonaparte's plan of conquering Egypt was .by no means so rash as has sometimes been represented.
The local authorities were divided among themselves by bitter feuds - the ecclesiastical against the civil, the ayuntamiento against the governors, the administrative officers among themselves; brigandage, mutinies and intestinal struggles disturbed the peace.
In 1589 mutinies of troops took place all over the empire, and in the two following years there were several risings of the Janissaries at Constantinople, the pretext being everywhere that the soldiers were being robbed of their pay.
Barrackpur played an important part in the two Sepoy mutinies of 1824 and 1857, but the details of these belong to the general history of British rule in India.
RAFAEL DEL RIEGO NUNEZ (1784-1823), Spanish army officer, who has the melancholy distinction of having begun the long series of political military mutinies - pronunciamientos - in Spain, was born at Santa Maria de Tuna in Asturias on the 2nd of April 1784.
His rule was weak; the state was distracted by interminable palace intrigues and military mutinies, and affairs went from bad to worse when, in 1843, Jankoji Rao, who left no heir, was succeeded by another boy, adopted by his widow, Tara Bai, under the name of Jayaji Rao Sindhia.
He won many battles and towns; he quelled mutinies of his own 1 See Tillyard, Agathocles (1908).
It would seem that the constant changes in the govern~nent caused the army to get out of control at an early period of the Ottoman occupation, and at the beginning of the 11th Islamic century mutinies became common; in 1013 Troubles (1604) the governor Ibrahim Pasha was murdered by a~,~rmy.thi0 the soldiers, and his head set on the Bab Zuwflla.
The reason for these mutinies was the attempt made by successive pashas to put a stop to the extortion called Tulbah, a forced payment exacted by the troops from the inhabitants of the country by the fiction of debts requiring to be discharged, which led to grievous ill-usage.
During the course of its history it had broken out into mutiny at recurrent intervals, the latest occasion being the winter of 1843-1844, when there were two separate mutinies in Sind and at Ferozepur.
Mutinies became frequent in all parts of the empire; to ore of them the life of the jurist and praetorian praefect Ulpian was sacrificed; another compelled the retirement of Dio Cassius from his command.
April and May found vent in the serious mutinies at Spithead and the Nore.
Isolated mutinies in Bengal were succeeded by much more serious events at Cawnpore in Oudh, and at Meerut in the North-West Provinces.