Ignaz Jozsef Martinovics (1755-1795) and his associates, the Hungarian Jacobins, vainly attempted a revolutionary propaganda (1795), and Napoleon's mutilations of the ancient kingdom of St Stephen did not predispose the Hungarian gentry in his favour.
Prior to Charlemagne .it is probable that several other collections of homilies had obtained considerable popularity, but in the time of that emperor these had suffered so many mutilations and corruptions that an authoritative revision was felt to be imperatively necessary.
Mutilations, such as circumcision, violation of chastity in the case of maidens hallowed to certain gods, ritual cutting of hair and nails, and their deposition in a sanctuary, rather belong to the category of sacrifice, as also the burial of a living victim under the foundations of a new building or bridge '(see' Sacrifice).
The underlying idea, as of similar mutilations of those slain in battle, is the warrior's wish to preserve a portable proof or trophy of his prowess.
In 1881, 4439 agrarian outrages were reported; nothing attracted more attention in England than the cruel mutilations of cattle, which became very frequent.