This grows under oaks, in clusters - a most unusual character for the mushroom, and is said to be excellent for the table.
The amanitas include some of the most showy representatives of the Agaricineae or mushroom order of fungi.
This spawn may be obtained from old pastures, or decayed mushroom beds, and is purchased from nurserymen in the form of bricks charged with the mycelium, and technically known as mushroom spawn.
On being cut or broken the flesh of a true mushroom remains white or nearly so, the flesh of the coarser horse mushroom changes to buff or sometimes to dark brown.
A species, described by Berkeley and Broome as distinct from both the pasture mushroom and horse mushroom, has been published under the name of A.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
The most complete and symmetrical grass rings are formed by Marasmius oreades, the fairy ring champignon, but the mushroom and many other species occasionally form rings, both on grass-lands and in woods.
Fresh manure should be avoided, but the remains from an old hot-bed or mushroom bed may be incorporated.
The mushroom usually grown in gardens or hot-beds, in cellars, sheds, &c., is a distinct variety known as Agaricus hortensis.
When all these characters are taken together no other mushroom-like fungus - and nearly a thousand species grow in Britain - can be confounded with it.
The cuticle of a mushroom readily peels away from the flesh beneath, as shown at F.
An allied fungus peculiar to woods, with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture mushroom under the name of A.
Many instances are on record where mushroom-beds have been invaded by a growth of strange fungi and the true mushrooms have been ousted to the advantage of the new-comers.
These two fungi usually grow in woods, but sometimes in hedges and in shady places in meadows, or even, as has been said, as invaders on mushroom-beds.
Cervinus; it has a tall, solid, white, ringless stem and somewhat thin brown cap, furnished underneath with beautiful rose-coloured gills, which are free from the stem as in the mushroom, and which FIG.
Less manure is used in these cellars than we generally see in the mushroom-houses of England, and the surface of each bed is covered with about an inch of fine white stony soil.
The equable temperature of these cellars and their freedom from drought is one cause of their great success; to this must be added the natural virgin spawn, for by continually using spawn taken from mushroom-producing beds the potency for reproduction is weakened.
Like the mushroom, it grows in short open pastures and amongst the short grass of open roadsides; sometimes it appears on lawns, but it never occurs in woods or in damp shady places.
AMADOU, a soft tough substance used as tinder, derived from Polyporus fomentarius, a fungus belonging to the group Basidiomycetes and somewhat resembling a mushroom in manner of growth.
During 1905 the town of Goldfield had a period of mushroom growth, then quieted, and finally revived to a healthy development.
The brain is well developed and its " mushroom-bodies " are exceptionally large.
The internal arrangement of a lean-to mushroom house is shown in fig.
Although this plant is popularly termed the "meadow mushroom," it never as a rule grows in meadows.
A true mushroom is never large in size; its cap very seldom exceeds 4, at most 5 inches.
The parts of a mushroom consist chiefly of stem and cap; the stem has a clothy ring round its middle, and the cap is furnished underneath with numerous radiating coloured gills.
When a mushroom is perfectly ripe and the gills are brown-black in colour, they throw down a thick dusty deposit of fine brown-black or purple-black spores; it is essential to note the colour.
The well-known compact variety of mushroom-growers, with its white cap and dull purplish clay-coloured gills, is A.
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
Sometimes a beautiful, somewhat slender, fungus peculiar to stumps in woods is mistaken for the mushroom in A.
In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller flakes or "leaves" of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can be seen to exist.
To command a regular supply, however, at all seasons, the use of a mushroom-house will be found very convenient.
With this or a mixture of horse-dung, loam, old mushroom-bed dung, and half-decayed leaves, the beds are built up in successive layers of about 3 in.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
It is totally different in appearance from the pasture mushroom, and, like it, its characters are so distinct that there is hardly a possibility of making a mistake when its peculiarities are once comprehended.
It has more than one advantage over the meadow mushroom in its extreme commonness, its profuse growth, the length of the season in which it may be gathered, the total absence of varietal forms, its adaptability for being dried and preserved for years, and its persistent delicious taste.
The mushroom is a semi-deliquescent fungus which rapidly falls into putridity in decay, whilst the champignon dries up into a leathery substance in the sun, but speedily revives and takes its original form again after the first shower.
A fungus which may carelessly be mistaken for the mushroom is M.
Arvensis, is probably a variety of the pasture mushroom; it grows in rings in woody places and under trees and hedges in meadows; it has a large scaly round cap, and the flesh quickly changes to buff or brown when cut or broken; the stem too is hollow.
The steamer on reaching the given position lowers one, or perhaps two, mark buoys, mooring them by mushroom anchor, chain and rope.
A cable is carried out from the mainland at Crookhaven for 7 m., and the outer end earthed by connexion with a copper mushroom anchor.
Mould and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the surface of their " mushroom garden," of numerous small white bodies formed by swollen ends of the fungus hyphae.
A small variety of the common mushroom found in pastures has been named A.
Velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.
Slugs and woodlice are the worst enemies of mushroom crops.
Is about one-half the size of a mushroom, and whitish-buff in every part, the gills always retaining this colour and never becoming salmon-coloured, brown or black.