The Scyphozoa have the following features in common: - They typically exhibit an ectodermal stomodaeum; partitions or mesenteries project into their coelenteron from the body-wall, and on these are generally concentrated digestive cells (to form mesenterial filaments, phacellae or gastric filaments, &c.); the external musculature of the body-wall is circular (except in Cerianthus); the internal, longitudinal; and the sexual cells probably always arise in the endoderm.
From these tracts a plexus of nerve-fibres is developed in connexion with the musculature and cuticle.
There are ten mesenteries in which the musculature is so little developed as to be almost indistinguishable.
No doubt can be entertained that the greater part of the inner layer corresponds to the mesoderm of more ordinary embryos, for the coelomic pouches, the germ-cells, the musculature and the vascular system all arise from it.
Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.
This retractor-muscle, indeed, serves to pull back with great rapidity the extruded proboscis, and is aided in its action by the musculature of the head.
In the ectoparasitic Trematodes this post-oral sucker is a complex disk placed near the hinder end and provided With suckerlets, hooks and a musculature arising from a special skeleton.
The oral hood with its cirri has a special nerve supply and musculature by which the cirri can be either spread out, or bent inwards so that those of one side may interdigitate with those of the other, thus completely closing the entrance to the mouth.
From Dan's whiplike body to Brady's feline-like musculature to the stranger's towering frame, there was no mistaking them for normal soldiers.
Pelagic organisms, floating on the surface of the open sea, propelling themselves feebly by the pumping movements of the umbrella produced by contraction of the sub-umbral musculature, and capturing their prey with their tentacles.
It has been shown by C. Janet (1889), from careful studies of the musculature, that the greater part of the head-capsule is built up of the four anterior head-segments, the hindmost of which has the mandibles for its appendages, and this conclusion is in the main supported by the recent work on the head skeleton of J.
The median dorsal vessel, however, remains distinct, but instead of continuing its course beneath the proboscidian sheath it is first enclosed by the ventral musculature of this organ, and still farther forwards it even bulges out longitudinally into the cavity of the sheath.
In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g.
In the marsupials it is more evident, and its excitation by electric currents evokes movements in the musculature of the crossed side of the body.
The main musculature can be seen through the thin skin to be divided into about sixty pairs of muscle-segments (myotomes) by means of comma-shaped dissepiments, the myocommas, which stretch between the skin and the central skeletal axis of the body.
In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.