The Muscovite tsars had pursued them with fire and sword.
Thus, for want of funds, Alexander was unable to assist the Grand Master of the Order of the Sword against Muscovite aggression, or prevent Tsar Ivan III.
He certainly left Muscovite society worse than he found it, and so prepared the way for the horrors of "the Great Anarchy."
As these independent Tatar states were always jealous of each other, and their jealousy often broke out in open hostility, it was easy to prevent any combined action on their part; and as in each khanate there were always several pretenders and contending factions, Muscovite diplomacy had little difficulty in weakening them individually and preparing for their annexation.
As the Muscovite and the Lithuano-Polish princes were equally ambitious and equally anxious to widen their borders, they naturally came into conflict.
At first the Muscovite was decidedly the aggressor.
In the negotiations for peace the inordinate pretensions of the Muscovite prince were put forward boldly: he not only refused to restore Smolensk, but claimed Kiev and a number of other towns on the ground that in the old time of the independent principalities they had belonged to descendants of Rurik.
One of the Polish kings, for example, threatened with death the English sailors who should attempt to carry on the illicit trade in arms, on the ground that " the Muscovite, who is not only our opponent of to-day but the eternal enemy of all free nations, should not be allowed to supply himself with cannons, bullets and munitions or with artisans who manufacture arms hitherto unknown to those barbarians."
In the expected war with Poland, which followed quickly, the Russians were so successful that the arrangement was upheld; but it was soon found that the Cossacks, though they professed unbounded devotion to the Orthodox tsar, disliked Muscovite, quite as much as Polish, interference in their internal affairs, and some of their leaders were in favour of substituting federation with Poland for annexation by Russia.
Matveyev, the most influential of the boyars, had married a foreigner who conversed freely with her husband's male friends, contrary to the Muscovite notions of respectability and decorum, and his house, in which the tsar was a frequent visitor, was furnished and decorated in foreign fashion.
Peter, by his first marriage, had a son, the unhappy cesarevich Alexius (q.v.), who figures more largely in imaginative literature than in history - a narrow-minded, obstinate, pious youth, who had no sympathy with his father's violent innovations, and was completely under the influence of the old Muscovite reactionary faction.
In 1685 Peter the Great took refuge here from the revolted streltzi, or Muscovite military guards.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
The granite (biotite, biotite-muscovite and quartz-monzonite) is of fine quality, and has been used extensively in the United States for building and monumental purposes; and the burning of lime is by far the most important industry of the city.
The principal members of the group are muscovite, biotite, phlogopite and lepidolite.
The angle between the optic axes varies from 70 0 -50° in muscovite and lepidolite to Io - o° in biotite and phlogopite; the latter are thus frequently practically uniaxial.
To the first class, with the optic axial plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, belong muscovite, lepidolite, paragonite, and a rare variety of biotite called anomite; the second class includes zinnwaldite, phlogopite, lepidomelane and most biotites.
Dark coloured micas are strongly pleochroic. Accurate determinations of the optical orientation, as well as the symmetry of the etching figures on the cleavage planes, seem to suggest that the micas, except muscovite, may be anorthic rather than monoclinic in crystallization.
The different kinds of mica vary from perfectly colourless and transparent - as in muscovite - through shades of yellow, green, red and brown to black and opaque - as in lepidomelane; the former have a pearly lustre and the latter a submetallic lustre on the cleavage surfaces.
Tschermak, in 1878, regarded them as isomorphous mixtures of the following fundamental molecules: H 2 KA1 3 (SiO 4) 3, corresponding with muscovite; Mg 6 Si 3 0 12, a hypothetical polymer of olivine; and H4S15012, a hypothetical silicic acid.
Muscovite and biotite are commonly found in siliceous rocks, whilst phlogopite is characteristic of calcareous rocks.
Large sheets of muscovite, such as are of commercial value, are found only in the very coarsely crystallized pegmatite veins traversing granite, gneiss or micaschist.
Muscovite and phlogopite are practically the only species used commercially, the former being the more common.
During his northern voyages he had learnt Russian, and was employed as interpreter at court whenever Muscovite embassies visited Copenhagen.
During the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, he was sent to the Amur to defend the new Muscovite fortress of Albazin against the Chinese.
His superiority over all his Muscovite contemporaries was due to the fact that he was already a statesman, in the modern sense, while they were still learning the elements of statesmanship. His death was an irreparable loss to the tsar, who wrote upon the despatch announcing it, the words "Peter filled with grief."
Another great service rendered by Philaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers.
He procured the election of his son Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these commercial centres was at the best precarious.
The Becker granite (known as " Chester dark " and " Chester light ") is a muscovite-biotite granite varying from medium grey to medium bluish grey colour, and fine in texture.
In the Muscovite campaign of 1633.
A disastrous war with Ivan III., the first Muscovite tsar, speedily convinced the Lithuanians that they were not strong enough to stand alone, and in 1499 they voluntarily renewed the union.
On the other hand, the growth of the Muscovite state with its fiscal and governmental requirements involved a watchful repartition of burdens among the population and led ultimately to a system of collective liability in which the farms were considered chiefly as the sources of taxable income.
But matters were clearly ripe for a wider application of the view that the peasant ought to stick to the soil, and the restoration of the Muscovite empire under the Romanovs brought with it the consolidation of all rural arrangements around this principle.
This spirited policy restored the waning prestige of the Hat party and firmly established their anti-Muscovite system.
As Aga Mahommeds power increased, his dislike and jealousy of the Muscovite assumed a more practical shape.
Somewhat later Ibrahim Khalil of Shusha, repenting of his Russophilism, determined to deliver up the Muscovite garrison at that place, but his plans were betrayed, and he and his relatives put to death.
With respect to the eastern boundaries of his kingdom, Fath Ali Shah was fortunate in having to deal with a less dangerous neighbor than the Muscovite of persistent policy and ThCAF ban the Turk of precarious friendship. The Afghan, though, ,, ~
The Sunnite Turk was almost a greater enemy to his neighbor the Shiite than the formidable Muscovite, who had curtailed him of Rupture so large a section of his territory west of the Caspian.
Still more energetic on the other side, the Russian minister, Ivan Osterman, became the treasurer as well as the counsellor of the Caps, and scattered the largesse of the Russian empress with a lavish hand; and so lost to all feeling of patriotism were the Caps that they openly threatened all who ventured to vote against them with the Muscovite vengeance, and fixed Norrkoping, instead of Stockholm, as the place of meeting for the Riksdag as being more accessible to the Russian fleet.
From his early youth he gave promise of great military talent, and served his apprenticeship in the science of war under Zolkiewski in the Muscovite campaigns of 1610-1612, and under Chodkiewicz in 1617-1618.
Meanwhile the Turks were threatening in the south, and Wladislaus found it expedient to secure his Muscovite conquests.
During the interregnum in Poland after the death of Henry of Valois, Zolkiewski was an ardent partisan of the chancellor Zamoyski, and supported the candidature of Stephen Bathory, under whose banner he learned the art of war in the Muscovite campaigns.