Thus, for want of funds, Alexander was unable to assist the Grand Master of the Order of the Sword against Muscovite aggression, or prevent Tsar Ivan III.
He certainly left Muscovite society worse than he found it, and so prepared the way for the horrors of "the Great Anarchy."
The Muscovite tsars had pursued them with fire and sword.
As these independent Tatar states were always jealous of each other, and their jealousy often broke out in open hostility, it was easy to prevent any combined action on their part; and as in each khanate there were always several pretenders and contending factions, Muscovite diplomacy had little difficulty in weakening them individually and preparing for their annexation.
As the Muscovite and the Lithuano-Polish princes were equally ambitious and equally anxious to widen their borders, they naturally came into conflict.
At first the Muscovite was decidedly the aggressor.
In the negotiations for peace the inordinate pretensions of the Muscovite prince were put forward boldly: he not only refused to restore Smolensk, but claimed Kiev and a number of other towns on the ground that in the old time of the independent principalities they had belonged to descendants of Rurik.
One of the Polish kings, for example, threatened with death the English sailors who should attempt to carry on the illicit trade in arms, on the ground that " the Muscovite, who is not only our opponent of to-day but the eternal enemy of all free nations, should not be allowed to supply himself with cannons, bullets and munitions or with artisans who manufacture arms hitherto unknown to those barbarians."
In the expected war with Poland, which followed quickly, the Russians were so successful that the arrangement was upheld; but it was soon found that the Cossacks, though they professed unbounded devotion to the Orthodox tsar, disliked Muscovite, quite as much as Polish, interference in their internal affairs, and some of their leaders were in favour of substituting federation with Poland for annexation by Russia.
Matveyev, the most influential of the boyars, had married a foreigner who conversed freely with her husband's male friends, contrary to the Muscovite notions of respectability and decorum, and his house, in which the tsar was a frequent visitor, was furnished and decorated in foreign fashion.
Abandoning the ancient Muscovite capital, where many influential personages were fanatically hostile to his innovations and not a few of the superstitious inhabitants regarded him with horror as Antichrist, he built at the mouth of the Neva a new capital which was to serve as " a window through which his people might look into Europe "; and laying aside the national St title of tsar he proclaimed himself (1711) emperor Peters- (Imperator) of all Russia - much to the surprise and indignation of foreign diplomatic chancelleries, which resented the audacity of a semi-barbarous potentate in claiming to be equal in rank with the head of the Holy Roman Empire.
Peter, by his first marriage, had a son, the unhappy cesarevich Alexius (q.v.), who figures more largely in imaginative literature than in history - a narrow-minded, obstinate, pious youth, who had no sympathy with his father's violent innovations, and was completely under the influence of the old Muscovite reactionary faction.
In 1685 Peter the Great took refuge here from the revolted streltzi, or Muscovite military guards.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
The granite (biotite, biotite-muscovite and quartz-monzonite) is of fine quality, and has been used extensively in the United States for building and monumental purposes; and the burning of lime is by far the most important industry of the city.
The principal members of the group are muscovite, biotite, phlogopite and lepidolite.
The angle between the optic axes varies from 70 0 -50° in muscovite and lepidolite to Io - o° in biotite and phlogopite; the latter are thus frequently practically uniaxial.
To the first class, with the optic axial plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, belong muscovite, lepidolite, paragonite, and a rare variety of biotite called anomite; the second class includes zinnwaldite, phlogopite, lepidomelane and most biotites.
Dark coloured micas are strongly pleochroic. Accurate determinations of the optical orientation, as well as the symmetry of the etching figures on the cleavage planes, seem to suggest that the micas, except muscovite, may be anorthic rather than monoclinic in crystallization.
The different kinds of mica vary from perfectly colourless and transparent - as in muscovite - through shades of yellow, green, red and brown to black and opaque - as in lepidomelane; the former have a pearly lustre and the latter a submetallic lustre on the cleavage surfaces.
Tschermak, in 1878, regarded them as isomorphous mixtures of the following fundamental molecules: H 2 KA1 3 (SiO 4) 3, corresponding with muscovite; Mg 6 Si 3 0 12, a hypothetical polymer of olivine; and H4S15012, a hypothetical silicic acid.
Muscovite and biotite are commonly found in siliceous rocks, whilst phlogopite is characteristic of calcareous rocks.
Large sheets of muscovite, such as are of commercial value, are found only in the very coarsely crystallized pegmatite veins traversing granite, gneiss or micaschist.
Muscovite and phlogopite are practically the only species used commercially, the former being the more common.
During his northern voyages he had learnt Russian, and was employed as interpreter at court whenever Muscovite embassies visited Copenhagen.
During the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, he was sent to the Amur to defend the new Muscovite fortress of Albazin against the Chinese.
His superiority over all his Muscovite contemporaries was due to the fact that he was already a statesman, in the modern sense, while they were still learning the elements of statesmanship. His death was an irreparable loss to the tsar, who wrote upon the despatch announcing it, the words "Peter filled with grief."
Another great service rendered by Philaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers.
He procured the election of his son Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these commercial centres was at the best precarious.
The Becker granite (known as " Chester dark " and " Chester light ") is a muscovite-biotite granite varying from medium grey to medium bluish grey colour, and fine in texture.
In the Muscovite campaign of 1633.
A disastrous war with Ivan III., the first Muscovite tsar, speedily convinced the Lithuanians that they were not strong enough to stand alone, and in 1499 they voluntarily renewed the union.
In Lithuania the increasing pressure of the Muscovite was the chief danger.
During the earlier part of the 1 th P g P 5 century the Lithuanian princes had successfully contested Muscovite influence even in Pskov and Great Novgorod.
But, at the last moment, the dread of another Muscovite invasion made them more pliable and, at a Polish diet held at Warsaw from November 1563 to June 1564, which the Lithuanians attended, the question of an absolute union was hotly debated.
The collapse of the mend 111., Muscovite tsardom in the east, and the submersion 1587-1632.
Incredible as it may seem, the expedition to place the false Demetrius on the Muscovite throne was a private speculation of a few Lithuanian magnates, and similar enterprises on the part of other irresponsible noblemen on the Danube or Dniester brought upon unhappy Poland retaliatory Tatar raids, which reduced whole provinces to ashes.
They were shrewd enough to guess that the royal triumph might prejudice their influence, and for the next five years they deliberately thwarted the enlightened and far-reaching projects of the king for creating a navy and increasing the revenue without burdening the estates, by a system of tolls levied on the trade of the Baltic ports (see Wladislaus Iv.), even going so far as to refuse for nine years to refund the expenses of the Muscovite War, which he had defrayed out of his privy purse.
First, however, it is necessary to describe briefly the origin and previous history of these romantic freebooters who during the second half of the 17th century were the determining factor of Polish and Muscovite politics.
In the summer of 1655, moreover, while the Republic was still reeling beneath the shock of the Muscovite invasion,, Charles X.
The first of these events, to be dated from the alliance between the emperor Leopold and John Casimir, on the 2 7th of May 1657, led to a truce with the tsar and the welcome diversion of all the Muscovite forces against Swedish Livonia.
In 1664 a peace congress was opened at Durovicha and the prospects of Poland seemed most brilliant; but at the very moment when she needed all her armed strength to sustain her diplomacy, the rebellion of one of her leading magnates, Prince Lubomirsky, involved her in a dangerous civil war, compelled her to reopen negotiations with the Muscovites, at Andrussowo, under far more unfavourable conditions, and after protracted negotiations practically to accept the Muscovite terms. By the truce of Andrussowo (Feb.
The old age of Trembecki appears to have been ignoble and neglected; he had indeed "fallen upon evil days and evil tongues"; and when he died at an advanced age all the gay courtiers of whom he had been the parasite were either dead or had submitted to the Muscovite yoke.
By advancing crystallization and increased size of their components, slates pass gradually into phyllites, which consist also of quartz, muscovite and chlorite.
The Muscovite war had no sooner been ended by the treaty of Deulina than Chodkiewicz was hastily despatched southwards to defend the southern frontier against the Turks, who after the catastrophe of Cecora (see Zolkiewski) had high hopes of conquering Poland altogether.
It was during his government that the Muscovite church received its patriarchate, which placed it on an equality with the other Eastern churches and emancipated it from the influence of the metropolitan of Kiev.
That Boris was one of the greatest of the Muscovite tsars there can be no doubt.
Of Sunapee are quarried two kinds of monumental stone: the " light Sunapee," a light bluish-grey biotite-muscovite, finer than the Concord granite, and capable of a good polish and of fine carving; and the " black pearl " or " dark Sunapee," a dark bluish-grey quartz-diorite, which seems black mottled with white when polished, and which is coarser than the " light Sunapee."
STANISLAUS KONIECPOLSKI (1591-1646), Polish soldier, was the most illustrious member of an ancient Polish family which rendered great services to the Republic. Educated at the academy of Cracow, he learned the science of war under the great Jan Chodkiewicz, whom he accompanied on his Muscovite campaigns, and under the equally great Stanislaus Zolkiewski, whose daughter Catherine he married.
Generally, however, they confined themselves to raiding on a grand scale and, encouraged by the Porte or the Muscovite, systematically devastated whole provinces, penetrating even into the heart of Poland proper and disappearing with immense booty.