The towns on the eastern seaboard, of which Mukdishu and Brava were the chief, formed part of the Zenj " empire " (see Zanzibar) and shared its fate, being conquered in turn by the Portuguese (16th century), the imans of Muscat (17th century), and the sultans of Zanzibar (1866).
Pin sailed into the Persian Gulf, took Muscat, and laid siege to Ormuz.
Fiagat Muscat, the capital of the Muscat.
Niebuhr did not go inland from Muscat; the operations by a British Indian force on the Pirate coast in 1810 gave no opportunities for visiting the interior, and it was not till 1835 that J.
Wellsted, who had already tried to penetrate into Hadramut from the south, landed at Muscat with the idea of reaching it from the north-east.
Muscat, the capital of the province and the principal port on the coast, is surrounded on three sides by bare, rocky hills, and has the reputation of being the hottest place in [[[Geology: Climate: Fauna]] Arabia.
They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems. Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.
Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
Oman, through its chief port Muscat, had a total trade of about £55 0, 000, two-thirds of which is due to imports and one-third to exports.
In 1506 Hormuz was taken by Albuquerque, and Muscat and the coast of Oman (q.v.) were occupied by the Portuguese till 1650.
Even in Oman their hold on the country was limited to Muscat and the adjacent ports, while the interior was ruled by the old Yariba (Ya-`aruba) dynasty from their capital at Rustak.
The overthrow of the Wahhabis in 1817 restored Sultan Said to independence; he equipped and armed on Western models a fleet built in Indian ports, and took possession of Sokotra and Zanzibar, as well as the Persian coast north of the straits of Hormuz as far east as Gwadur, while by his liberal policy at home Sohar, Barka and Muscat became prosperous commercial ports.
They are identified with the ancient Insulae Zenobii, and were ceded by the sultan of Muscat to Britain in 1854 for the purposes of a cable station.
After the final withdrawal of the Portuguese in the early years of the 18th century, the coast towns north of Cape Delgado fell under the sway of the Muscat Arabs, passing from them to the sultan of Zanzibar.
Failing assistance from the imam of Muscat, she accepted French protection in 1840, ceding such rights as she possessed on the N.W.
The only good harbour on the coast is that of Muscat, the capital of the kingdom, which, however, is not directly connected with the interior by any mountain route.
The little port of Matrah, immediately contiguous to Muscat, offers the only opportunity for penetrating into the interior by the wadi Kahza, a rough pass which is held for the sultan or imam of Muscat by the Rehbayin chief.
In 1883, owing to the treachery of this chief, Muscat was besieged by a rebel army, and disaster was only averted by the guns of H.M.S.
South of Muscat the port of Kuryat is again connected with the inland valleys by the wadi Hail, leading to the gorges of the wadi Thaika or "Devil's Gap."
Fifty miles to the north-west of Muscat this interior region may again be reached by the transverse valley of Semail, leading into the wadi Munsab, and from thence to Tyin.
The sultan, a descendant of those Yemenite imams who consolidated Arab power in Zanzibar and on the East African coast, and raised Oman to its position as the most powerful state in Arabia during the first half of the 19th century, resides at Muscat, where his palace directly faces the harbour, not far from the British residency.
This coast is under the nominal suzerainty of the Sultan of Muscat, the principal ports from E.
Being Sur, Muscat, Matra, Khabura and Sohar.
Monsoon, which is marked at Muscat, is scarcely noticeable in the Persian Gulf proper, though recent upperair investigations conducted at Bagdad give some reason to think that the effects of the monsoon can be observed even there.
In the shade during a few days in summer; the humidity of the air at Muscat is greater and the climate is, in consequence, much more trying, but even here a maximum of 109° F.
Above present level, and in the flat ledge which surrounds Muscat harbour.
Dates are grown for the European market at Muscat and for local consumption on both sides of the Gulf, but not in considerable quantities.
The Muscat date reaches maturity sooner than the Basra crop, and is commercially valuable.
Nummulitic limestones of Persia; Muscat series; and Bahrein series.
Fish are extensively used for manure, especially in Muscat, where they are also fed to cattle without unpleasant results.
Posts.-The reopening in 1862 of direct communications between India and the Persian Gulf gave rise to a demand for properly organized post-offices, and the Indian Postal Department accordingly opened branches in 1864 at Muscat and Bushire.
They now run from Karachi to Jask, whence a cable runs to Muscat; from Jask one cable runs to Hanjam, and thence to Bushire; another cable runs direct to Bushire.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
Albuquerque seized several towns on the coast of Oman, including Muscat in 1507, and soon afterwards established his authority on the I.
With the exception of local disturbances of old standing at Muscat, and at Bushire (where they were fomented by German gold), the Arab and Persian population of both shores maintained a friendly attitude to Great Britain throughout the war, although British gunboats were seldom, if ever, seen at that time in waters which in peace they had regularly patrolled.
The stream of arms flowing from Zanzibar to Muscat continued to increase in volume, and in 1892 no less than 11,50o firearms were landed at Muscat, of which more than half were at once reexported.
The trade, blocked at Persian ports and later at all Gulf ports except Muscat, continued to flourish, in spite of a naval blockade of the Makran coast by Great Britain in 1910 - I.
At length, however, in 1912 the Sultan of Muscat issued a proclamation requiring all arms imported into Muscat to be placed in a special warehouse from which they could not be removed except on production of an import permit from the competent authority at their destination.
This killed the trade at Muscat; the French Government, who had claimed that the Sultan's proclamation was inconsistent with his treaty engagements with them, accepted the accomplished fact with good grace after lengthy diplomatic negotiations, and the trade was by 1913 almost dead, except at the N.
In subsequent years over 700 slaves were rescued at sea and more than 2,000 otherwise released; the traffic was by 1920 virtually dead in the Gulf, but slavery as an institution seemed likely to continue for many decades to come to flourish inland in Muscat, in Central Arabia, and in a modified form in part of Persia.
The first, called the Persian Gulf section, runs from Karachi to Bushire, from Jask to Muscat, and from Bushire to Fao, where a connexion is made with the Ottoman government line.
The white muscat wines of Vesuvius are also of good quality, and the island of Capri produces some excellent wine.
In the neighbourhood of Palermo, Muscat and Malvoisie wines of very fair quality are made.
In the meanwhile the Saduzai tribe revolted at Herat, and declared itself independent in 1717; the Kurds overran the country rous~d Hamadan; the Uzbegs desolated Khorasan; and the Arabs of Muscat seized the island of Bahrein and threatened Bander Abbasi.
He made one vain attempt to regain his possessions in the Persian Gulf; but the Portuguese fleet which had promised to transport his troops to Bahrein was defeated by the imam of Muscat and forced to retreat to Goa.
It passed in the 17th century into the possession of the imams of Muscat, but in the 18th century became practically independent.
The Shuster opium is sent partly via Bushire to Muscat for transhipment to Zanzibar, and part is believed to be smuggled into India by way of Baluchistan and Mekran.
About 40 years later, Sultan bin Ahmad, the ruler of Muscat, having been appealed to for aid by the Arab inhabitants of the place against Persian misrule, occupied the town, and obtained a firman from the Persian government confirming him in his possession on the condition of his paying a yearly rent of a few thousand tomans.
In 1852 the Persians expelled the Muscat authorities from Bander Abbasi and its district, but retired when Muscat agreed to pay an increased rent.
By a treaty concluded between Persia and Muscat in 1856 it was stipulated that Bander Abbasi town and district and the islands were to be considered Persian territory and leased to Muscat at an annual rent of 14,000 tomans (£6000).