Joseph left Naples on the 23rd of May 18o8; but it was not until the 6th of September that Joachim Murat made his entry.
In June 1809, during his campaign against Austria, Sir John Stuart with an Anglo-Sicilian force sailed northwards, captured Ischia and threw Murat into great alarm; but on the news of the Austrian defeat at Wagram Stuart sailed back again.
Murat, left in command of the Grand Army at of ?VapoVilna, abandoned his charge and in the next year made Icons overtures to the allies who coalesced against Napoleon.
The rash attempt of Murat in the autumn of 1815, which led to his death at Pizzo in Calabria, enabled the Bourbon dynasty to crush malcontents with all the greater severity.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
Of the generals, Murat, Berthier, Lannes and Leclerc were those who prepared the way for the coup d'etat.
Drums beat the charge, Murat led the way through the corridors of the palace to the Orangerie, and levelled bayonets ended the existence of the Council.
Next came the marshals, namely, Berthier, Murat, Massena, Augereau, Lannes, Jourdan, Ney, Soult, Brune, Davout, Bessieres, Moncey, Mortier and Bernadotte.
The duchy of Berg, along with the eastern part of Cleves and other annexes, now went to Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon (March 1806); and that melodramatic soldier at once began to round off his eastern boundary in a way highly offensive to Prussia.
Godoy, having the prospect of the Algarve before him, likewise offered no opposition to the advance of Napoleon's troops to the capital; and so it came about that Murat, named by Napoleon his Lieutenant in Spain, was able to enter Madrid in force and without opposition from that usually clannish populace.
Murat, now acting very warily in the hope of gaining the crown of Spain for himself, refused to recognize this act as binding, still more so the accession of Ferdinand VII.
In all the genuine letters of the spring of 1808 - that of March 29th to Murat, no.
On Louis declining the honour, it devolved on Joseph, king of Naples, who vacated that throne for the benefit of Murat - a source of disappointment and annoyance to both.
If not, then his troops could deal with it as Murat had dealt with the men of Madrid on the 2nd of May.
His anxiety was increased by news of sinister import respecting frequent interviews between those former rivals, Talleyrand and Fouche, in which Murat was said to be concerned.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
The new empress was escorted into France by Queen Caroline Murat, for whom she soon conceived a feeling of distrust.
To remedy this, Murat and other general officers as well as minor agents were sent ahead and instructed to travel through South Germany in plain clothes with a view to collecting information and mastering the topography.
On the 7th of October this movement was completed - the Austrians abandoned the Danube bridges after a show of resistance, retreating westward - and Napoleon, leaving Murat in command of the V.
Bernadotte in his turn became an army of observation, and Napoleon joining Murat with the main body marched rapidly westward from the Lech towards the Iller.
On the 28th Murat was driven in by the allied columns.
The emperor was still unaware of the position of his principal foe, and Murat with Bernadotte behind him was directed on Gera for the iith, the remainder of the army con tinuing along the roads previously assigned to them.
Murat reported the movement of the Saxons on the previous day, but omitted to send a strong detachment in pursuit.
Murat and Bernadotte via Zeitz to Naumburg; Davout (III.
Murat boasted that he had ioo,000 men behind him, and on his return Massenbach implored his chief to submit to an unconditional surrender, advice which the prince accepted, though as a fact Murat's horses were completely exhausted and he had no infantry whatever within call.
Rapidly renouncing his previous intentions, he issued orders to concentrate on Allenstein; but this point was chosen too far in advance and he was anticipated by Murat and Soult at that place on the 2nd of February.
Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.
Thus, when late on the 7th of February 1807 Murat and Soult overtook the enemy near Eylau (q.v.) the fighting was severe but not prolonged.
Ordered Soult and Augereau on the left and right respectively to assail the enemy, Murat and the Guards remaining in the centre as reserve.
And Guard corps, together with a new cavalry reserve corps under Lannes, in all 147,000, stood ready for the operation, and with Murat and Soult as general advanced guard the whole moved forward, driving the Russian outposts before them.
Murat attacked the Russians, who had halted in their entrenched position, on the 11th and drove in their outposts, but did not discover the entrenchments.
The villages west of the Plauen ravine and even Lobda were occupied in the early morning by General Metzko with the leading division of Klenau's corps from Freiberg, and upon Metzko Napoleon intended first to throw the weight of his attack, giving to Victor's infantry and the cavalry of Murat, king of Naples, the task of overwhelming the isolated Austrians.
"You cannot fire; surrender," said Murat to an Austrian battalion in the battle.
Of the first line, and Murat, with an overwhelming cavalry force from Cotta and Burgstadl, outflanked his left, broke up whole battalions, and finally, with the assistance of the renewed frontal attack of Victor's infantry, annihilated the division.
He was restored to the throne of Tuscany after the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and was received with enthusiasm by the people, but had again to vacate his capital for a short time in 1815, when Murat proclaimed war against Austria.
Early in 1800 she married Joachim Murat, whose interests she afterwards advanced with all the power of her ambitious and Murat intriguing nature.
Turquan, Caroline Murat, reine de Naples (Paris, 1899) F.
See also under Murat, Joachim.
Douglas (ibid., 190), James Morgan (ibid., 1907), and Murat Halstead (Akron, 1902) are personal or political eulogies.
He had left Marshal Davout behind in Paris, and Murat in disgrace; Suchet was far off on the eastern frontier, and Clausel was in the south of France.
The following are worth mention: - Vie politique, militaire et privee du general Moreau (1814); Catastrophe de Murat, ou Recit de la derniere revolution de Naples (1815); Histoire de la guerre d'Espagne et du Portugal, 1807-1813 (2 vols., 1819); Collection de memoires relatifs aux revolutions d'Espagne (2 vols., 1824); Histoire de la revolution de Piemont (2 vols., 1821, 1823); Memoires secrets et inedits pour servir a l'histoire contemporaine (2 vols., 1825).
Prince Napoleon Lucien Charles Murat, the second son of Joachim Murat, also lived here for many years; and the estate known as "Ironsides" was long the home of Rear-Admiral Charles Stewart.