Joseph left Naples on the 23rd of May 18o8; but it was not until the 6th of September that Joachim Murat made his entry.
In June 1809, during his campaign against Austria, Sir John Stuart with an Anglo-Sicilian force sailed northwards, captured Ischia and threw Murat into great alarm; but on the news of the Austrian defeat at Wagram Stuart sailed back again.
Murat, left in command of the Grand Army at of ?VapoVilna, abandoned his charge and in the next year made Icons overtures to the allies who coalesced against Napoleon.
The rash attempt of Murat in the autumn of 1815, which led to his death at Pizzo in Calabria, enabled the Bourbon dynasty to crush malcontents with all the greater severity.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
Of the generals, Murat, Berthier, Lannes and Leclerc were those who prepared the way for the coup d'etat.
Drums beat the charge, Murat led the way through the corridors of the palace to the Orangerie, and levelled bayonets ended the existence of the Council.
Next came the marshals, namely, Berthier, Murat, Massena, Augereau, Lannes, Jourdan, Ney, Soult, Brune, Davout, Bessieres, Moncey, Mortier and Bernadotte.
The duchy of Berg, along with the eastern part of Cleves and other annexes, now went to Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon (March 1806); and that melodramatic soldier at once began to round off his eastern boundary in a way highly offensive to Prussia.
Godoy, having the prospect of the Algarve before him, likewise offered no opposition to the advance of Napoleon's troops to the capital; and so it came about that Murat, named by Napoleon his Lieutenant in Spain, was able to enter Madrid in force and without opposition from that usually clannish populace.
Murat, now acting very warily in the hope of gaining the crown of Spain for himself, refused to recognize this act as binding, still more so the accession of Ferdinand VII.
In all the genuine letters of the spring of 1808 - that of March 29th to Murat, no.
On Louis declining the honour, it devolved on Joseph, king of Naples, who vacated that throne for the benefit of Murat - a source of disappointment and annoyance to both.
If not, then his troops could deal with it as Murat had dealt with the men of Madrid on the 2nd of May.
His anxiety was increased by news of sinister import respecting frequent interviews between those former rivals, Talleyrand and Fouche, in which Murat was said to be concerned.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
The new empress was escorted into France by Queen Caroline Murat, for whom she soon conceived a feeling of distrust.
To remedy this, Murat and other general officers as well as minor agents were sent ahead and instructed to travel through South Germany in plain clothes with a view to collecting information and mastering the topography.
On the 7th of October this movement was completed - the Austrians abandoned the Danube bridges after a show of resistance, retreating westward - and Napoleon, leaving Murat in command of the V.
Bernadotte in his turn became an army of observation, and Napoleon joining Murat with the main body marched rapidly westward from the Lech towards the Iller.
On the 28th Murat was driven in by the allied columns.
The emperor was still unaware of the position of his principal foe, and Murat with Bernadotte behind him was directed on Gera for the iith, the remainder of the army con tinuing along the roads previously assigned to them.
Murat reported the movement of the Saxons on the previous day, but omitted to send a strong detachment in pursuit.
Murat and Bernadotte via Zeitz to Naumburg; Davout (III.
Murat boasted that he had ioo,000 men behind him, and on his return Massenbach implored his chief to submit to an unconditional surrender, advice which the prince accepted, though as a fact Murat's horses were completely exhausted and he had no infantry whatever within call.
Rapidly renouncing his previous intentions, he issued orders to concentrate on Allenstein; but this point was chosen too far in advance and he was anticipated by Murat and Soult at that place on the 2nd of February.
Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.
Thus, when late on the 7th of February 1807 Murat and Soult overtook the enemy near Eylau (q.v.) the fighting was severe but not prolonged.
Ordered Soult and Augereau on the left and right respectively to assail the enemy, Murat and the Guards remaining in the centre as reserve.
And Guard corps, together with a new cavalry reserve corps under Lannes, in all 147,000, stood ready for the operation, and with Murat and Soult as general advanced guard the whole moved forward, driving the Russian outposts before them.
Murat attacked the Russians, who had halted in their entrenched position, on the 11th and drove in their outposts, but did not discover the entrenchments.
Lestocq in the meantime had been forced northwards towards Konigsberg, and Soult with Murat was in hot pursuit.
The enemy lay direct to his right, an Murat, the IV.
The main army, with the emperor in person, covered by Murat and the cavalry, moved on Vilna, whilst Jerome on his right rear at once threatened Bagration and covered the emperor's outer flank.
Here he was overtaken by Murat and Ney, but the French columns had straggled so badly that four whole days elapsed before the emperor was able to concentrate his army for battle and then could only oppose 128,000 men to the Russians' 110,000.
Murat and Ney as " general advanced guard " attacked the town in the morning of the 16th of August, and whilst they fought the main body was swung round to attack the Russian left and rear.
Kutusov continued his retreat, and Murat with his now exhausted horsemen followed as best he might.
Whilst waiting his return Murat was enjoined to skirmish with Kutusov, and the emperor himself worked out a scheme to assume the offensive with his whole army towards St Petersburg, calling in Victor and St Cyr on the way.
This project was persisted with, until on the 18th Murat was himself attacked and severely handled (action of Tarutino or Vinkovo).
Henceforward the retreat of the army became practically a headlong flight, and on the 5th of December, having reached Smorgoni and seeing that nothing further could be done by him at the front, the emperor handed over the command of what remained to Murat, and left for Paris to organize a fresh army for the following year.
On the 8th of December Murat reached Vilna, whilst Ney with about 400 men and Wrede with 2000 Bavarians still formed the rearguard; but it was quite impossible to carry out Napoleon's instructions to go into winter quarters about the town, so that the retreat was resumed on the 10th and ultimately Konigsberg was attained on the 9th of December by Murat with 400 Guards and 600 Guard cavalry dismounted.
Konigsberg thus became untenable, and Murat fell back to Posen, where on the 10th of January he handed over his command to Eugene Beauharnais and returned to Paris.
Marshal Moncey with a corps occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered Catalonia; and a little later Bessieres with another corps had been brought up. There were now about ioo,000 French soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as "lieutenant for the emperor," entered Madrid.
In the Episcopal cemetery two monuments mark the graves of Charles Louis Napoleon Achille Murat (1801-1847), the eldest son of Joachim Murat, and of his wife Catherine (1803-1867), the daughter of Col.
After his death his wife lived in what is still known as the Murat Homestead, about 2 m.
In consequence of a fatal duel he was sent back to Naples; there he served under Joachim Murat with the rank of general, and fought against the AngloSicilian forces in Calabria and at Messina.
In the meanwhile Lannes and Murat had been engaged in the defence of the Santon.
He served under Joachim Murat and fought the Austrians on the Panaro in 1815.
Prince Napoleon Lucien Charles Murat, the second son of Joachim Murat, also lived here for many years; and the estate known as "Ironsides" was long the home of Rear-Admiral Charles Stewart.
The following are worth mention: - Vie politique, militaire et privee du general Moreau (1814); Catastrophe de Murat, ou Recit de la derniere revolution de Naples (1815); Histoire de la guerre d'Espagne et du Portugal, 1807-1813 (2 vols., 1819); Collection de memoires relatifs aux revolutions d'Espagne (2 vols., 1824); Histoire de la revolution de Piemont (2 vols., 1821, 1823); Memoires secrets et inedits pour servir a l'histoire contemporaine (2 vols., 1825).
He had left Marshal Davout behind in Paris, and Murat in disgrace; Suchet was far off on the eastern frontier, and Clausel was in the south of France.
Douglas (ibid., 190), James Morgan (ibid., 1907), and Murat Halstead (Akron, 1902) are personal or political eulogies.
Early in 1800 she married Joachim Murat, whose interests she afterwards advanced with all the power of her ambitious and Murat intriguing nature.
Turquan, Caroline Murat, reine de Naples (Paris, 1899) F.
See also under Murat, Joachim.
He was restored to the throne of Tuscany after the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and was received with enthusiasm by the people, but had again to vacate his capital for a short time in 1815, when Murat proclaimed war against Austria.
The villages west of the Plauen ravine and even Lobda were occupied in the early morning by General Metzko with the leading division of Klenau's corps from Freiberg, and upon Metzko Napoleon intended first to throw the weight of his attack, giving to Victor's infantry and the cavalry of Murat, king of Naples, the task of overwhelming the isolated Austrians.
"You cannot fire; surrender," said Murat to an Austrian battalion in the battle.
Of the first line, and Murat, with an overwhelming cavalry force from Cotta and Burgstadl, outflanked his left, broke up whole battalions, and finally, with the assistance of the renewed frontal attack of Victor's infantry, annihilated the division.
"Count Lichtenfels was here this morning," Bilibin continued, "and showed me a letter in which the parade of the French in Vienna was fully described: Prince Murat et tout le tremblement...
Why, the French have crossed the bridge that Auersperg was defending, and the bridge was not blown up: so Murat is now rushing along the road to Brunn and will be here in a day or two.
Murat, seeing that all is lost if the sergeant is allowed to speak, turns to Auersperg with feigned astonishment (he is a true Gascon) and says: 'I don't recognize the world-famous Austrian discipline, if you allow a subordinate to address you like that!'
The success of the trick that had placed the Vienna bridge in the hands of the French without a fight led Murat to try to deceive Kutuzov in a similar way.
Lemarrois had just arrived at a gallop with Bonaparte's stern letter, and Murat, humiliated and anxious to expiate his fault, had at once moved his forces to attack the center and outflank both the Russian wings, hoping before evening and before the arrival of the Emperor to crush the contemptible detachment that stood before him.
It was, in fact, Murat, now called "King of Naples."
Balashev replied that there was "nothing offensive in the demand, because..." but Murat interrupted him.
He became still more absorbed in his task when the Russian general entered, and after glancing over his spectacles at Balashev's face, which was animated by the beauty of the morning and by his talk with Murat, he did not rise or even stir, but scowled still more and sneered malevolently.
The officers said that either Napoleon or Murat was there, and they all gazed eagerly at this little group of horsemen.
Napoleon's generals--Davout, Ney, and Murat, who were near that region of fire and sometimes even entered it--repeatedly led into it huge masses of well-ordered troops.
In the middle of the day Murat sent his adjutant to Napoleon to demand reinforcements.
About the middle of the Arbat Street, near the Church of the Miraculous Icon of St. Nicholas, Murat halted to await news from the advanced detachment as to the condition in which they had found the citadel, le Kremlin.
Around Murat gathered a group of those who had remained in Moscow.
Murat approached the interpreter and told him to ask where the Russian army was.
"Good!" said Murat and, turning to one of the gentlemen in his suite, ordered four light guns to be moved forward to fire at the gates.
The guns emerged at a trot from the column following Murat and advanced up the Arbat.
Murat was informed that the way had been cleared.
If Murat had not lost sight of the Russians?
He said that Murat was spending the night less than a mile from where they were, and that if they would let him have a convoy of a hundred men he would capture him alive.
Had the Cossacks pursued the French, without heeding what was behind and around them, they would have captured Murat and everything there.
"We couldn't take Murat prisoner this morning or get to the place in time, and nothing can be done now!" he replied to someone else.
The battle of Tarutino obviously did not attain the aim Toll had in view--to lead the troops into action in the order prescribed by the dispositions; nor that which Count Orlov-Denisov may have had in view-- to take Murat prisoner; nor the result of immediately destroying the whole corps, which Bennigsen and others may have had in view; nor the aim of the officer who wished to go into action to distinguish himself; nor that of the Cossack who wanted more booty than he got, and so on.
With regard to military matters, Napoleon immediately on his entry into Moscow gave General Sabastiani strict orders to observe the movements of the Russian army, sent army corps out along the different roads, and charged Murat to find Kutuzov.