Ferries or traghetti for crossing the canals were also established as early as the 13th century; we find record of ferries at San Gregorio, San Felice, San Toma, San Samuele, and so on, and also of longer ferries to the outlying islands like Murano and Chioggia, or to the mainland at Mestre and Fusina.
The original part of the magnificent mosaic pavement probably dates from the middle of the 12th century, if we may judge from the pavement at Murano, exactly similar in style, material and workmanship, which bears the date 1140.
The glass manufactory of Murano (q.v.), a small island about 12 m.
These twelve townships were Grado, Bibione, Caorle, Jesolo, Heraclea, Torcello, Murano, Rialto, Malamocco, Poveglia, Chioggia and Sottomarina.
The Venetian furnaces in the island of Murano are small low structures heated with wood.
Besides the making of vessels of all kinds the factories of Murano had for a long period almost an entire monopoly of two other branches of the art - the making of mirrors and of beads.
During the 16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of mirrors, but France and England gradually acquired knowledge and skill in the art, and in 1772 only one glass-house at Murano continued to make mirrors.
The fall of the republic was accompanied by interruption of trade and decay of manufacture, and in the last years of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century the glass-making of Murano was at a very low ebb.
In 1642 Jean Savonetti " gentilhomme Verrier de Murano " obtained a patent for making glass in Brussels.
The Spanish glass-makers were very successful in imitating the Venetian style, and many specimens supposed to have originated from Murano are really Spanish.
They had left Murano owing to slackness of trade, but had been recalled, and appealed to the Council of Ten in Venice to be allowed to complete their contract in London.
Evelyn notes in his Diary a visit in 1673 to the Italian glass-house at Greenwich, " where glass was blown of finer metal than that of Murano," and a visit in 1677 to the duke of Buckingham's glass-works, where they made huge " vases of mettal as cleare, ponderous and thick as chrystal; also looking-glasses far larger and better than any that came from Venice."
Was carried off from Rome in 1809, Cappellari withdrew to Murano, near Venice, and in 1814, with some other members of his order, he removed to Padua; but soon after the restoration of the pope he was recalled to Rome, where he received successive appointments as vicar-general of the Camaldoli, councillor of the Inquisition, prefect of the Propaganda, and Pxaminer of bishops.