To the west of Lake Van, and close to the headwaters of the Murad Su, the eastern branch of the Euphrates, while the most easterly point is situated in a region about 42° 50' E., southward of the same lake.
On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems. Here he died on the 6th of September 1850.
Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.
But if he was the most cruel, Murad was also one of the most manly, of the later sultans.
Murad V >>
(1842-), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, was born on the 21st of September 1842, and succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad V., on the 31st of August 1876.
NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.
Then, entering a deep gorge with lofty rock walls and magnificent scenery, it runs south-east to its junction with the Murad Su.
The southern or eastern and longer arm, called by the Turks Murad Su (Arsanias Fl.; Armenian, Aradzani; Arab.
Of Kharput the Murad is joined by its principal tributary, the Peri Su, which drains the wild mountain district, Dersim, that lies in the loop between the two arms. The Murad Su is of greater volume than the Frat, but its valley below Mash is contracted and followed by no great road.
The length of the Frat is about 275 m.; of the Murad, 415 m.; and of the Euphrates from the junction to Samsat, 115 m.
1643), who figures in Turkish history, was by birth a Hungarian, who was enrolled in the Janissaries, rose to be Kapudan Pasha under Murad IV., and after the capture of Bagdad was made grand vizier.
He stood on friendly terms with Mahommed I., but was again besieged in his capital by Murad II.
Not the Western Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days of Murad II.
Under Murad, however, it rose to its old height.
Forces of Wladislaus of Poland and John Hunyadi of Transylvania, and succeeded in forcing on Murad II.
Here the last Crusade ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1 453, Mahommed II., the successor of Murad, captured Constantinople.
After capturing Angora from a horde of Turkomans encamped there who were attacking his dominions, at first with some success, Mur ad 1, in 1361 Murad prepared for a campaign in Europe.
When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.
Murad, who had returned to Brusa, crossed over to Biga, and sent on Haji Ilbeyi with io,000 men; these fell by night on the Servians and utterly routed them at a place still known as the " Servians' coffer."
In 1367 Murad made Adrianople his capital and enriched it with various new buildings.
Murad thereupon returned to Europe with a large force, and sent Chendereli Zade Ali Pasha northwards; the fortresses of Shumla, Pravadi, Trnovo, Nicopolis and Silistria were taken by him; Sisman III., rebel king of Bulgaria, was punished and Bulgaria once more subjugated.
After the battle, while Murad was reviewing his victorious troops on the field, he was assassinated by Milosh Kabilovich, a Servian who was allowed to approach him on the plea of submission.
Murad maintained a show of friendly relations with the emperor John Palaeologus, while capturing his cities.
A review held by him in 1387 at Yeni Shehr was attended by the emperor, who, moreover, gave one of his daughters in marriage to Murad and the other two to his sons Bayezid and Yakub Chelebi.
Adherents flocked to him, and for a whole year Murad was engaged in suppressing his attempts to usurp the throne.
Murad now laid siege to Constantinople to avenge himself on the emperor, and on the 24th of August the desperate valour of the defenders succeeded in driving back an assault led by a band of fanatical dervishes.
Mustafa, delivered up by treachery, was hanged (1424); but Murad remained in Asia, restoring order in the provinces, while his lieutenants continued the war against the Greeks, Albanians and Walachians.
By 1426 the princes of Kermian and Karamania had submitted on honourable terms; and Murad was soon free to continue his conquests in Europe.
Meanwhile, again confronted by a rebellion of the prince of Karamania, Murad had crossed into Asia and reduced him to submission, granting him honourable terms, in view of the urgency of the peril in Europe.
On the 12th of July 1444 a ten years' peace was signed with Hungary, whereby Walachia was placed under the suzerainty of that country; and, wearied by constant warfare and afflicted by the death of his eldest son, Prince Ala-ud-din, Murad abdicated in favour of his son Mahommed, then only fourteen years of age, and retired to Magnesia (1444).
In this emergency Murad was implored to return to the throne; to a second appeal he gave way, and crossing over with his Asiatic army from Anatoli Hissar he hastened to Varna.
Murad is said to have abdicated a second time, and to have been again recalled to power owing to a revolt of the Janissaries.
Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.
After completing his preparations, which included the casting of a monster cannon and the manufacture of enormous engines of assault, Mahom med Murad 1!., 1421-1451.
He was no more successful than Piri or his successor Murad in fighting the elements and the Portuguese in the Persian Gulf; but he was happier in his fate.
The regular troops comprised also armourers (jebeji), from 6000 to 8000 men, and six squadrons of cavalry; these were recruited in the same way as the Janissaries, and their numbers were raised by Murad III.
The character of Murad III., who succeeded his father Selim II.
He was a weakling, swayed by his favourites in the Murad III., harem, especially by his Venetian wife Safie; and, 1574-1595.
On the 16th of January 1 595 Murad III.
In spite of the internal corruption which, under Murad III., heralded the decay of the empire, the prestige of the Ottomans in Europe was maintained during his reign.
Mustafa 1., The war in Persia was terminated by the renewal 1617-1618 in 1618 of the treaty of 1611, whereby all the con- and quests effected by Murad III.
For a few months Mustafa was replaced on the throne; when he abdicated in L, favour of his nephew Murad IV.
Profiting by the and mutiny of the army, the Persians invaded Turkey, Murad IV., capturing Bagdad; at Constantinople and in the 1623-1640.
With difficulty the rebellion was suppressed; in 1733 the war with Persia was resumed, and after three years of fighting Nadir succeeded in 1736 in inducing Turkey to recognize him as shah of Persia and to restore the territory captured since the reign of Murad IV.
The war, which broke out in 1743, was waged with varying fortunes, and the peace by which it was concluded on the 5th of September 1746, beyond stipulating for a few privileges for Persian pilgrims to the holy places, altered nothing in the settlement arranged ten years before with Murad IV.
These stipulations of the treaty, which were in effect a confirmation of the firman granted in 1620 by Murad IV.
Sheikhi of Kermiyan, a contemporary of Mahommed I.and Murad II., wrote a lengthy and still esteemed mesnevi on the ancient Persian romance of Khusrev and Shirin; and about the same time Yaziji-oghlu gave to the world a long versified history of the Prophet, the Muha.mmediya.
The most notable prose work of this period is an old collection of stories, the History of the Forty Vezirs, said to have been compiled by a certain Sheikh-zada and dedicated to Murad II.
But Nef'i could revile as well as praise, and such was the bitterness of some of his satires that certain influential personages who came under his lash induced Murad IV.
1599), the preceptor of Murad III., wrote a valuable history of the empire from the earliest W riters.
1220, has remained closed since the capture of the city by Murad IV.
Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.
(1402-1421), and resumed its triumphal progress under Murad II.
At the diet of Buda, early in 1444, supplies were voted for the enterprise, and Wladislaus was on the point of quitting his camp at Szeged for the seat of war, when envoys from Sultan Murad arrived with the offer of a ten years' truce on such favourable conditions (they included the relinquishment of Servia, Walachia and Moldavia, and the payment of an indemnity) that Hunyadi persuaded the king to conclude (in July) a peace which gave him more than could reasonably be anticipated from the most successful campaign.