The branches of the stem arise by multiplication of the cells 01 the epidermis and cortex at a given spot, giving rise to a protuber ance, at the end of which an apical meristem is established.
When we are familiar with the treatment of quantities by equations, we may ignore the units and deal solely with numbers; and (ii.) (a) and (ii.) (b) may then, by the commutative law for multiplication, be regarded as identical.
The addition and multiplication of these "signed" real numbers is suitably defined, and it is proved that the usual arithmetic of such numbers follows.
I think that there is never any alcoholic fermentation without there being at the same time organization, development and multiplication of globules, or the continued consecutive life of globules already formed."
Accordingly, the typical form for such a complex number is x+yi, and then with this notation the above-mentioned definition of multiplication is invariably adopted.
The most frequent are the miracle at Cana, the multiplication of the loaves and fishes, the paralytic carrying his bed, the healing of the woman with the issue of blood, the raising of Lazarus, FIG.
For multiplication, for instance, we have the statement that, if P and Q are two quantities, containing respectively p and q of a particular unit, then p X Q = q X P; or the more abstract statement that p X q= q X p.
When, by practice with logarithms, we become familiar with the correspondence between additions of length on the logarithmic scale (on a slide-rule) and multiplication of numbers in the natural scale (including fractional numbers), A /5 acquires a definite meaning as the number corresponding to the extremity of a length x, on the logarithmic scale, such that 5 corresponds to the extremity of 2X.
Dean's multiplication table of 44, the number of rented apartments, wasn't perfect, but that number times even a reasonable monthly rental lessened any sympathy he might have felt for the woman's financial plight.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
We see first that any operation with 4a-3b can be regarded as an operation with (+)4a+(-)3b, subject to the conditions (I) that the signs (+) and (-) obey the laws (+)=(+),(+)(-)=(-)(+)= (-), (-) (-)=(+), and (2) that, when processes of multiplication are completed, a quantity is to be added or subtracted according as it has the sign (+) or (-) prefixed.
A characteristic feature of the calculus is that a meaning can be attached to a symbol of this kind by adopting a new rule, called that of regressive multiplication, as distinguished from the foregoing, which is progressive.
= (1 +Plain) (1 = er,nam; and, by multiplication, II (1 +ala+a2a2+...) = II (1-}-biP+b2P 2 +...
If A 1 = X a i e i, B i = /if i e i, the distributive law of multiplication is preserved by assuming A1B1=E(a0 i 3)eiej; it follows that A 1 B 1 = - B 1 A 1, and that A l 2 = o.
This observation led him to further work, and he succeeded in showing that in vascular organs the presence of cells in inflammatory exudates is not the result of exudation but of multiplication of pre-existing cells.
They are, however, in no sense evangelicals in the Western sense; for they observe rigorous fasts, reverence icons, and believe implicitly in the efficacy of the multiplication of crossings, bowings and prostrations.
Such excessive multiplication of the larger taxonomic divisions shows an imperfect sense of proportion, for if the term " class " be allowed its usual zoological value, no student can fail to recognize that the Hexapoda form a single welldefined class, from which few entomologists would wish to exclude even the Apterygogenea.
He forms n equations from f by separate multiplication by x, ...x, I, in succession, and similarly treats 4) with m multipliers I.
= exp,udl where exp denotes (by the rule over exp) that the multiplication of operators is symbolic as in Taylor's theorem.
(multiplication symbolic) ?r1! ?2,ï¿½..
Growing knowledge of Aristotle's works and the multiplication of translations enabled students to tendency.
(vii.) The only exception that may be made to the above rule is that an expression involving multiplication-dots only, or a simple fraction written with the solidus, may have the brackets omitted for additions or subtractions, provided the figures are so spaced as to prevent misunderstanding.
(iii.) The general statement of the laws of operation of fractions is perhaps best deferred until we come to fractional numbers, when letters can be used to express the laws of multiplication and division of such numbers.
The idea of (-5) as a number with which we can perform such operations as multiplication comes later (ï¿½ 49)ï¿½ (ii.) On the other hand, the conception of a fractional number follows directly from the use of fractions, involving the subdivision of a unit.
Here each member is a number, and the equation may, by the commutative law for multiplication, be written 2(x+I) - 4(x-2) This means that, whatever unit A we take, 2(x+ I) A Sand 5 4(x-2) A are equal.
Arose in (i.) by the successive multiplication of r, 'I, r' - 2,.
- (i.) The results of the addition, subtraction and multiplication of multinomials (including monomials as a particular case) are subject to certain laws which correspond with the laws of arithmetic (ï¿½ 26 (i.)) but differ from them in relating, not to arithmetical value, but to algebraic form.
This latter process, however, is itself based on a definition of division in terms of multiplication (ï¿½ï¿½ 15, 16).
We therefore define algebraical division by means of algebraical multiplication, and say that, if P and M are multinomials, the statement " P/M = Q " means that Q is a multinomial such that MQ (or QM) and P are identical.
The sum and product of two quaternions are defined by the formulae mi ase + F+lases = (a s + 133) es 2arer X ZO,es = Fiarfseres, where the products e,e, are further reduced according to the following multiplication table, in which, for example, the eo e1 e2 e3 second line is to be read eieo = e1, e 1 2 = - eo, e i e 2 = es, eie3 = - e2.
All this is analogous to the corresponding formulae in the barycentric calculus and in quaternions; it remains to consider the multiplication of two or more extensive quantities The binary products of the units i are taken to satisfy the equalities e, 2 =o, i ej = - eeei; this reduces them to.