Muller (1870), Haupt-Vahlen (last ed., 1904), *Bahrens (1880), *A.
Muller, Der Begriff der sittlichen Unvollkommenheit bei Descartes and Spinoza (1890); J.
Muller from three MSS.
1 They are particularly important in that they counteracted the popular and interestingly written books of Max Muller: for instance, Muller, like Renan and Wilhelm von Humboldt, regarded language as an innate faculty and Whitney considered it the product of experience and outward circumstance.
Muller, Die Gesetze Hammurabis (Vienna, 1903); J.
Max Muller, their inventor (e.g.
Muller tried to show that even sense experience throws us on the Infinite - which for him was the kernel of the idea of God.
Muller, Gesammelte Schriften (Otto Becker, Leipzig, 1872), and Arch.
Garrod, " Major Divisions of Passerine Birds (syrinx, &c.)," P.Z.S., 1876, pp. 506519; and " On the Conformation of the Thoracic Extremity of the Trachea in the Class A y es," P.Z.S., 18 79, pp. 357-3 80; Muller, Stimmorgane der Passerinen, Mailer's Arch.
Max Muller, "On Ancient Prayers," in Semitic Studies in Memory of Rev. Dr Alexander Kohut (1897); L.
Muller in the Denkschriften of the Vienna Academy (Phil.-hist.
Muller, Livi Andronici et Cn.
Bohm.-Bruder (1882); Muller, Das Bischofstum der Bruder-Kirche (1888); Zinzendorf als Erneuerer der alien Bruder-Kirche (1900); Die deutschen Katechismen.
Muller, Biographisches fiber Duns Scotus (progr., Cologne, 1881); W.
Muller, De Antisthenis cynici vita et scriptis (Dresden, 1860); T.
The second, according to Max Muller and A.
2; Memnon in C. Muller, Frag.
Muller, Kirchengeschichte (2nd edition by H.
The son of a miller, his name originally was Johann Muller, but he called himself, from his birthplace, Joh.
Muller, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduction; A.
JULIUS MULLER (1801-1878), German Protestant theologian, was born at Brieg on the 10th of April 1801.
A disciple of Neander and friend of Richard Rothe, Muller bitterly opposed the philosophy of Hegel and the criticism of F.
Kahler, Julius Muller (1878); L.
Schultze, Julius Muller (1879) and Julius Muller als Ethiker (1895).
Muller and F.
Muller, Facts and Arguments for Darwin (trans.
Muller brought out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema Naturae, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the Linnaean model.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
Character of this kind is not to be despised as a practical mode of separating the birds which possess it; and, more than this, it would appear that the discovery thus announced was the immediate means of leading to a series of investigations of a much more important and lasting nature - those of Johannes Muller to be presently mentioned.
Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
He freely recognized the prior discoveries of, as he thought, Audubon, though really, as has since been ascertained, of Macgillivray; but Muller was able to perceive their systematic value, which Macgillivray did not, and taught others to know it.
At the same time Muller showed himself, his power of discrimination notwithstanding, to fall behind Nitzsch in one very crucial point, for he refused to the latter's Picariae the rank that had been claimed for them, and imagined that the groups associated under that name formed but a third " tribe" - Picarii - of a great order Insessores, the others being (1) the Oscines or Polymyodi - the singing birds by emphasis, whose inferior larynx was endowed with the full number of five pairs of song-muscles, and (2) the Tracheophones, composed of some South-American families.
Nothing whatever is to be said against the composition of his first and second " tribes"; but the third is an assemblage still more heterogeneous than that which Nitzsch brought together under a name so like that of Muller - for the fact must never be allowed to go out of sight that the extent of the Picarii of the latter is not at all that of the Picariae of the former.'
But again Muller made his third " tribe " Picarii also to contain the Tyrannidae, of which mention has just been made, though it is so obvious as now to be generally admitted that they have no very intimate relationship to the other families with which they are there associated.
Just as Nitzsch had laboured under the disadvantage of never having any example of the abnormal Passeres of the New World to dissect, and, therefore, was wholly ignorant of their abnormality, so Muller never succeeded in getting hold of an example of the genus Pitta for the same purpose, and yet, acting on the clue furnished by Keyserling and Blasius, he did not hesitate to predict that it would be found to fill one of the gaps he had to leave, and this to some extent it has been since proved to do.
It must not be supposed that the vocal muscles were first discovered by Muller; on the contrary, they had been described.
But Muller has the merit of clearly outstriding his predecessors, and with his accustomed perspicuity made the way even plainer for his successors to see than he himself was able to see it.
These laws, as formulated by him, are that (1) there is a coincidence of form of the anterior palatal and of the cranium in birds of the same order; (2) there is a likeness between the anterior palatal bones in birds of the same order; (3) there are relations of likeness 1 The title of the English translation is Johannes Muller on Certain Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Passeres that have hitherto escaped notice.
The same year which saw the promulgation of the crude scheme just described, as well as the publication of the final researches of Muller, witnessed also another attempt at the classification of birds, much more limited indeed in scope, but, so far as it went, regarded by most ornithologists of the time as almost final in its operation.
1, pp. 186-256, 308-352) an essay in two parts, wherein, following the researches of Muller 2 on the syrinx, in the course of which a correlation had been shown to exist between the whole or divided condition of the planta or hind part of the " tarsus," first noticed, as has been said, by Keyserling and Blasius, and the presence or absence of the perfect song-apparatus, the younger author found an agreement which seemed almost invariable in this.
In the Oscines or Polymyodi of Muller the number was either nine or ten - and if the latter the outermost of them was generally very small.
The final disposition of the " Sub-class Insessores " - all the 2 On the other hand, Muller makes,several references to the labours.
Muller, Stimmorganen der Passerinen, p. 65).
Muller, Ann., 1864, 131, p. 35 2), and by the action of silver oxide on s-di-chloracrylic ester .at 125° C. (0.
Muller, 1885-1894), followed the lines of the xv.
Muller, has been generally accepted by modern archaeologists; and it is a strong point in its favour that the bishop of Orvieto in 595 signs himself episcopus civitatis Bulsiniensis (Gregor.