Physically the country is divided into two regions, the one a series of mountain ranges occupying the northern and eastern portions of the kingdom, and the other a plain which stretches southwards from Mukden, the capital, to the Gulf of Liao-tung.
- Mukden, or as it is called by the Chinese Sheng-king, the capital city of Manchuria, is situated in the province of Sheng-king, occupies a fine position on the river Hun-ho, an affluent of the Liao, and is a city of considerable pretensions.
The indigo plant is grown in large quantities in the plain country to the north of Mukden, and is transported thence to the coast in carts, each of which carries rather more than a ton weight of the dye.
Branches were promoted (a) from Mukden to Antung on the Yalu, to connect with the Korean system, and (b) from Kwang-cheng-tsze to Kirin.
The first runs from Peking to Kirin via Mukden, where it sends off a branch to Korea.
The second road runs from the treaty port of Niu-chwang through Mukden to Petuna in the north-western corner of the Kirin province, and thence to Tsitsihar, Mergen and the Amur.
Thence eat E min-ting and to Niu-chwang, and the link between Sin-min-ting and Mukden is also under Chinese control, The lines now under Russian control were laid down, and remain, on the 5 ft.
It extends, with unaltered character, from Mukden and Kirin.
He could have gained his respite by concentrating at Harbin or even at Mukden or at Liao-Yang.
Next morning, when Kuroki, who had conceived the mistaken idea of a general retreat of the Russians on Mukden, was preparing to pursue, the storm broke.
The railway still delivered 30,000 men a month at Mukden, and Japan had for a time outrun her resources.
Politically, however, it was important to hold Mukden, the Manchurian capital, and since the Japanese, as on previous occasions, reorganized instead of pursuing, he decided to stand his ground, a resolution which had an excellent effect on his army.
The Russian line in front of Mukden from the Hun-ho, through the Putilov and Novgorod hills on the Sha-ho, to the mountains, was 47 m.
Bilderling and Linievich were now close in to Mukden and along the Hun-ho.
But Nogi had not yet reached the Mukden - Tieling railway when, on the night of the 9th, every preparation having been made, Kuropatkin's retreat began.
On the loth, covered by Kaulbars, who held off Nogi, and by strong rearguards at and east of Mukden, the movement continued, and though it was not executed with entire precision, and the rearguards suffered very heavily, the Russians managed to draw off in safety to the northward.
After the disasters of Mukden and Tsushima, and being threatened with internal disorder in European Russia, the tsar, early in June, accepted the mediation of the president of The the United States, and pour parlers were set on foot.
Linievich, who succeeded Kuropatkin shortly after the battle of Mukden, retired slowly northward, re-organizing his forces and receiving fresh reinforcements from Europe.
Its capital is Mukden, or, as it is otherwise known, Sheng-king, "the Flourishing Capital."
To Mukden, and then south by west through Leaoi-yang and Hai-chung to Kai-ping and the sea, would define the level country.
The chief cities, Mukden, Liao-yang, Niu-chwang, Port Arthur and Tairen (Dalny) are separately noticed.
Sheng-king is well supplied with railways, Mukden being in direct railway connexion with Peking, Niu-chwang, Port Arthur and Tairen as well as with the Korean railways, and with Europe and Vladivostock by the trans-Siberian line.
The Mukden-Peking railway follows the route of the imperial highway from Peking, which passes through the Great Wall at Shan-kai-kwan and along the shores of the Gulf of Chih-li, and after leaving Mukden divides into three branches - one going eastward to Korea, another going by Kirin and A-she-ho to San-sing, while a third diverges N.
Another road leads east from Niu-chwang to Fung-hwang-chung, now a station on the Mukden-Korea railway.