Assimilative layer, and may also by the production of mucilage be of use in the protection of the body in various ways.
Types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.
Lemon juice is fermented for some time to free it from mucilage, then boiled 2 Cf.
The value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $13,879,159, the principal items being rubber and elastic goods ($3,635,211) and boots and shoes ($2,044,250) The manufacture of stoves, and of mucilage and paste are important industries.
For attaching it to the paper a strong mucilage of gum tragacanth, containing an eighth of its weight of spirit of wine, answers best.
MUCILAGE (from Late Lat.
The volatile oil - oleum cubebae - is also official, and is the form in which this drug is most commonly used, the dose being 5 to 20 minims, which may be suspended in mucilage or given after meals in a cachet.
Chinese galls examined by Viedt 12 yielded 72% of tannin, and less mucilage than Aleppo galls.
As in other cell-walls, so here the older membranes may be altered by deposits of various substances, such as resin, calcium oxalate, colouring matters; or more profoundly altered throughout, or in definite layers, by lignification, suberization (Trametes, Daedalea), or swelling to a gelatinous mucilage (Tremella, Gymnosporangium), while cutinization of the outer layers is common.
The mucilage surrounding endospores of Mucor, conidia of Empusa, &c., serves to gum the spore to animals.
When it persists as a massive element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in cellulose, mucilage or proteid.
The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.
Such filaments may not give rise to mucilage on the I.
19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.
The mucilage may also form an embedding substance similar to that of Chroococcaceae, in which the filaments lie parallel or radiate from a common centre (Rivulariaceae).
Yet the siphonaceous algae may assume or be loosely aggregated together within a common mucilage, or be great variety of form and reach a high degree of differentiation.
Among those Desmidiaceae which live a free life, two plants become surrounded by a common mucilage, in which they lie either parallel (Closterium) or crosswise (Cosmarium).
Cryptomonas, when dividing in a mucilage after encystment, recalls the condition in Gloeocystis.
In other cases the mucilage is denser and the branches more closely compacted (Helminthora).
In Batrachospermum filaments arise from the carpogonium on all sides; in Chantransia and Scinaia on one side only; in Helminthora the filaments are enclosed in a dense mucilage; in Nemalion, prior to the formation of the filaments, a sterile segment is cut off below.
The occurrence of a plentiful mucilage in many freshwater forms is, however, doubtless a provision against desiccation on exposure.
An orchis found in the mountain yields the dried tuber which affords the nutritious mucilage called salep; a good deal of this goes to India.
The seeds when placed in water for some time become coated with glutinous matter from the exudation of the mucilage in the external layer of the epidermis; and by boiling in sixteen parts of water they exude sufficient mucilage to form with the water a thick pasty decoction.
From the seeds have been obtained starch (about 14%), gum, mucilage, a non-drying oil, phosphoric acid, salts of calcium, saponin, by boiling which with dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid aesculic acid is obtained, quercitrin, present also in the fully developed leaves, aescigenin, C12H2n02, and aesculetin, C 9 H 6 O 4, which is procurable also, but in small quantity only, from the bark.