Galvani had made in 1790 his historic observations on the muscular contraction produced in the bodies of recently killed frogs when an electrical machine was being worked in the same room, and described them in 1791 (De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius, Bologna, 1791).
Borelli (De motu animalium, Rome, 1680), explained that birds are enabled to grasp the twig on which they rest whilst sleeping, without having to make any muscular exertion, because the weight of the body bends the knee and ankle-joints, over both of which pass the tendons of this compound muscle.
If the budget be not sanctioned by the emperor, that of the previous year remains in force, and the government has power, motu proprio, to impose the extra taxes necessary to carry out new laws.
His best-known work is De motu animalium (Rome, 1680-1681), in which he sought to explain the movements of the animal body on mechanical principles; he thus ranks as the founder of the iatrophysical school.
His publications include: Disquisitio mathematica in causam physicam figurae et magnitudinis terrae (Milan, 1751); Saggio della morale filosofia (Lugano, 1 753); Nova electricitatis theoria (Milan, 1 755); Dissertatio de motu diurno terrae (Pisa, 1758); Dissertationes variae (2 vols.
And on the 21st of November 1907 a papal motu proprio declared all the decisions of the Biblical Commission, past and future, to be as binding upon the conscience as decrees of the Roman Congregations.
Borelli (1608-1679), whose treatise De motu animalium, published in 1680, is regarded as marking an epoch in physiology.
This theorem was published in 1643, at the end of his treatise De motu gravium projectorum, and it was confirmed by the experiments of Raffaello Magiotti on the quantities of water discharged from different ajutages under different pressures (1648).
In 18J7 the pope, proprio motu, appointed him provost (or head of the chapter) of Westminster, and the same year he took up his residence in Bayswater as superior of a community known as the "Oblates of St Charles," an association of secular priests on the same lines as the institute of the Oratory, but with this difference, that they are by their constitution at the beck and call of the bishop in whose diocese they live.
16 54" (1655); "Tractatus duo, prior de cycloide, posterior de cissoide et de curvarum turn linearum dthivvec turn superficierum RrXarva,uw" (1659); "Mechanica, sive de motu tractatus geometricus" (three parts, 1669-1670-1671); "De algebra tractatus historicus et practicus, ejusdem originem et progressus varios ostendens" (English, 1685); "De combinationibus alternationibus et partibus aliquotis tractatus" (English, 1685) "De sectionibus angularibus tractatus" (English, 1685); "De angulo contactus et semicirculi tractatus" (1656); "Ejusdem tractatus defensio" (1685); "De postulato quinto, et quinta definitione, lib.
He published at Oxford in 1668 two tracts, on respiration and rickets, and in 1674 these were reprinted, the former in an enlarged and corrected form, with three others "De sal-nitro et spiritu nitro - aereo," "De respiratione foetus in utero et ovo," and "De motu musculari et spiritibus animalibus" as Tractatus quinque medico-physici.
Some of their powers of legislation and administration they possess motu proprio in virtue of their position as diocesan bishops, others they enjoy under special faculties granted by the Holy See; but all bishops are bound, by an oath taken at the time of their consecration, to go to Rome at fixed intervals (visitare sacra limina apostolorum) to report in person, and in writing, on the state of their dioceses.
In the 1 96th proposition of his work (De motu animalium, Leiden, 1685) he states that " If the expanded wings of a bird suspended in the air shall strike the undisturbed air beneath it with a motion perpendicular to the horizon, the bird will fly with a transverse motion in a plane parallel with the horizon."
Published a Motu proprio, " de ecclesiae legibus Decision of p ies x.
In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him, by the hand of Mr Paget, one of the fellows of his own college, and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital, a copy of his demonstration; and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem; and on his return to London on the 10th of December 1684, he informed the Royal Society " that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge, who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu," which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register.
This treatise De Motu was the germ of the Principia, and was obviously meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace.
In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia, the first book being the treatise De Motu, which he had enlarged and completed.
The two first books, without the third, will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica; and therefore I had altered it to this, De Motu Corporum libri duo.
Treatise De motu (printed amongst his Opera geometrica, 1644).
Besides the works already enumerated, it contained the Sermones de motu gravium composed at Pisa between 1589 and 1591; his letters to his friends, with many of their replies, as well as several of the essays of his scientific opponents; his laudatory comments on the Orlando Furioso, and depreciatory notes on the Gerusalemme Liberata, some stanzas and sonnets of no great merit, together with the sketch of a comedy; finally, a reprint of Viviani's Life, with valuable notes and corrections.
Baldassare Cossa, now as humble and resigned as he had before been energetic and tenacious, on his transference to the castle of Rudolfzell admitted the wrong which he had done by his flight, refused to bring forward anything in his defence, acquiesced entirely in the judgment of the council which he declared to be infallible, and finally, as an extreme precaution, ratified motu proprio the sentence of deposition, declaring that he freely and willingly renounced any rights which he might still have in the papacy.
Other philosophical works by Proclus are /roL X ELwoLS 4VO K 7 ti 7 HEpi KLV 7) Uews (Institutio physica sive De motu, a compendium of the last five books of Aristotle's IIEpt qu6LK?7s aKpoaaEWS, De physica auscultatione), and De providentia et fato, Decem dubitationes circa providentiann, De malorum subsistentia, known only by the Latin translation of William of Moerbeke (archbishop of Corinth, 1277-1281), who also translated the JTOtX€LW cs 9EoaoyLK17 into Latin.
His principal work, De Motu Stellarum, was published at Nuremberg in 1537 by Melanchthon, in a blundering Latin translation by Plato Tiburtinus (fl.
Halley supplies corrections to some of the observations recorded in De Motu Stellarum.