There are extensive manufactures, including those of motors and cycles with their accessories, also papermills, breweries, &c., and the population is largely industrial.
Electric motors for barrel cranes are not essentially different from those used for other purposes, but in proportioning the sizes the intermittent output has to be taken into consideration.
Three-phase motors are also much used for FIG.
Crane-driving, and it is probable that improvements in single and two-phase motors will eventually largely increase their use for this class of work.
The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.
Motors may be applied to every axle in the train, and their individual torques adjusted to values suitable to the weights naturally carried by the several axles.
This perfection of distribution is practically attained in present-day practice by the multiple control system of operating an electric train, where motors are applied to a selected number of axles in the train, all of them being under the perfect control of the driver.
When the service is frequent enough to give a good power factor continuously, the steam locomotive cannot compete with the electric motor for the purpose of quick acceleration, because the motors applied to the axles of a train may for a short time absorb power from the central station to an extent far in excess of anything which a locomotive boiler can supply.
Electricity is applied through a separate locomotive attached to the head of the train, or through motor carriages attached either at one end or at both ends of the train, or by putting a motor on every axle and so utilizing the whole weight of the train for traction, all the motors being under a single control at the head of the train, or at any point of the train for emergency.
Per hour, according to the distance between stations Later practice takes advantage of the great increase in power that can be temporarily developed by electric motors during the period of acceleration; this, in proportion to the weight of the train to be hauled, gives results much in advance of those obtained on ordinary steam railways.
In the years 1903 and 1904 petrol motors adapted for ploughing and other agricultural operations formed a prominent feature of the exhibits.
The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
Of the governments of Tomsk and Yeniseisk have been much under Tatar influence and appear to be of a different stock; their sub-groups are the Kamasin Tatars, the Kaibals, the Motors, the Beltirs, the Karagasses and the Samoyedes of the middle Ob.
The Motors are now little more than a memory.
By adopting modern non-sparking motors there is but little danger of igniting explosive gas.
See Davidson and Chase, Farm Motors and Farm Machinery; articles in L.
(2) A mixture of loo litres of spirit, 14 litres of the naphtha-pyridine mixture described above, 4 litre of methyl violet solution, and from 2 to 20 litres of benzol; this fluid is limited to combustion in motors and agricultural engines.
The pumps, placed close to the point where the water accumulates, may be worked by an engine on the surface by means of heavy reciprocating rods which pass down the shaft, or by underground motors driven by steam, compressed air or electricity.
These machines weigh from 20 to 22 cwt., and are mostly driven by electric motors of 25 up to 35 h.p. as a maximum.
In some instances electric motors have been substituted for compressed-air engines in such machines.
Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.
Notable examples are found in the Rateau, Ser and Capell fans, and where an electric generating station is available electric motors can be advantageously used instead of steam.
In one of the best-known examples, the Zollern colliery in Westphalia, the Koepe system is used, the winding disk being driven by two motors of 1200 H.P. each on the same shaft.
Modern screening and washing plants, especially when the small coal forms a considerable proportion of the output, are large and costly, requiring machinery of a capacity of ioo to 150 tons per hour, which absorbs 350 to 400 H.P. In this, as in many other cases, electric motors supplied from a central station are now preferred to separate steam-engines.
Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
The German production of alcohol had fallen off very much since the war, and little if any was being used for motors, benzol being the fuel principally employed.
The electric motors are under the control of the driver in a cabin on the car.
There are two steel-clad series-wound motors of 36 B.H.P. For a test load of 120 tons the tractive force is 70 lb per ton, which is sufficient for acceleration, and maintaining speed against wind pressure.
The Great Western railway has also a service of road motors between Abergavenny and Brecon.
The village has various manufactures, including bolts and nuts, motors for racing boats and automobiles; there are also large planing and wood-moulding mills.
Machine-making on a large scale is carried on by firms widely celebrated for the construction of locomotives, railway trucks and carriages, steamboilers and motors, turbines, pumps, metal bridges and roofs.
Owing to the difficulty of securing a durable motor with a simple and trustworthy means of automatically regulating the quantity of water used to the power needed at various times from the motor, not much advance has been recently made in the use of water motors with reciprocating rams or pistons.
- For further information concerning the construction and employment of water motors, the reader is referred to the following papers and textbooks: - Proc. Inst.
- Wood, Theory of Turbines; Bovey, Hydraulics; BjOrling, Hydraulic Motors; Blaine, Hydraulic Machinery; Bodmer, Hydraulic Motors; Unwin, " Water Motors " (Lectures on Hydro-Mechanics, Inst.
Hornell has extensive car shops of the Erie railroad, and among its manufactures are silk goods (silk gloves being a specially important product), sash, doors and blinds, leather, furniture, shoes, white-goods, wire-fences, foundry and machine shop products, electric motors, and brick and tile.
Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.
The rotation of the dome, and p _z with it the platform-framework, is accomplished s by means of electric motors, as also is the raising and lowering of the platform on its = =_ framework.
The telescope is moved in right ascension and declination by electric motors controlled from positions convenient for the observer.
The motors were practically useless on account of mechanical defects and were abandoned early in the great march.
In the form of motors for producing very small amounts of power air-engines have been found convenient, and within a restricted field they are still met with.
The type survives in some small domestic motors, an example of which, manufactured under the patent of H.
Clifford considers an octonion p+wq as the quotient of two motors p+wv, p'+wo'.
This is the basis of a method parallel throughout to the quaternion method; in the specification of rotors and motors it is independent of the origin which for these purposes the quaternion method, pure and simple, requires.
Lines and complexes thereof are sufficiently treated as rotors and motors, but points and planes cannot be so treated.
The general principles of electrical engineering will be found in Electricity Supply, and further details respecting the generation and use of electrical power are given in such articles as Dynamo; Motors, Electric; Transformers; Accumulator; Power Transmission: Electric; Traction; Lighting: Electric; Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy.
Such a press requires two 55 h.p. motors, one at each end, to drive it.
The independent system of motors is generally adopted, because it is found more economical and better for driving purposes, besides dispensing with the overhead shafting and belting, always unsightly, and dangerous to the workpeople.
There are engineering shops producing railway stock and motors, jute spinning and weaving mills, and match and joinery works.
For road-mending flint, though very hard, is not regarded with favour, as it is brittle and pulverizes readily; binds badly, yielding a surface which breaks up with heavy traffic and in bad weather; and its fine sharp-edged chips do much damage to tires of motors and cycles.
Schenectady is a manufacturing centre of growing importance; here are the main works of the General Electric Company, manufacturers of electrical implements, apparatus, motors and supplies, and of the American Locomotive Company.
Of Mechanical Refrigeration (Chicago); Redwood, Theoretical and Practical Ammonia Refrigeration (New York); Stephansky, Practical Running of an Ice and Refrigerating Plant (Boston); Ledoux, Ice-Making Machines (New York); Wallis-Taylor, Refrigerating and Ice-Making Machines (London) Ritchie Leask, Refrigerating Machinery (London); De Volson Wood, Thermodynamics, Heat Motors and Refrigerating Machinery (New York); Linde, Kdlteerzeugungsmaschine Lexikon der gesamten Technik; Behrend, Eis and KdlteerzeugungsMaschinen (Halle); De Marchena, Kompressions Kdltemaschinen (Halle); Theodore Koller, Die Kdlteindustrie (Vienna); Voorhees, Indicating the Refrigerating Machine (Chicago); Norman Selfe, Machinery for Refrigeration (Chicago); Hans Lorenz, Modern Refrigerating Machinery (London); Lehnert, Moderne Kdltetechnik (Leipzig); L.
In practice, the load factor for electric crane motors varies from 3 to s.