He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Later he went to Bagdad, where he wrote verses in praise of the caliph Motawakkil and of the members of his court.
(For Egypt under Motawakkil see CALIPHATE, c. par.
Freer allegorical views, however, were admitted on some specially perplexing points, such as the doctrine of the eternity of the Koran, the crude anthropomorphisms of the sacred text, &c.; and, since Mo`tazilite (Mu`tazilite) views had never taken deep root among the masses, while the caliphs required the help of the clergy, and from the time of Motawakkil (A.D.
(1517) the Ottoman Selim, who destroyed the Mameluke power, constrained the 'Abbasid Motawakkil III., who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his nominal caliphate.
The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.
In the reign of Motawakkil the orthodox faith was restored, never to be assailed again.'
- As Wathiq had appointed no successor the vizier Mahommed Zayyat had cast his eye on his son Mahommed, who was still a child, but the generals Wasif and Itakh, seconded by the upper cadi Ibn abi Da`ud, refused their consent, and offered the supreme power to Wathiq's brother Ja`far, who at his installation adopted the name of al-Motawakkil `ala 'llah (" he who trusts in God").
One of the first acts of Motawakkil was the release of all those who had been imprisoned for refusing to admit the dogma of the created Koran, and the strict order to abstain from any litigation about the Book of God.
Motawakkil, in 850, formulated an edict by which these sectaries were compelled to wear a distinctive dress and to distinguish their houses by a figure of the devil nailed to the door, excluding them at the same time from all public employments, and forbidding them to send their children to Moslem schools.
He was brought before Motawakkil and died in prison.
The caliph sent against them Mahommed al-Qommi, who subdued them in 856 and brought their king Ali Baba to Samarra before Motawakkil, on condition that he should be restored to his kingdom.
In 858 Motawakkil, hoping to escape from the arrogant patronage of Wasif, who had taken the place of Itakh as head of the Turkish guard, transferred his residence to Damascus.
247 (December 861), Motawakkil, after one of his wonted orgies, was murdered, together with his confidant, Fath b.
A son of Motawakkil was brought out of prison to succeed his cousin, and reigned for twenty-three years under the name of al-Mottamid `ala'llah (" he whose support is God").
This shadow of sovereignty continued to exist till the conquest of Egypt by the Turkish sultan Selim I., who compelled the last of them, Motawakkil, to abdicate in his favour (see Turkey: History).
In the reign of the tenth caliph Motawakkil the Tahirids fell before Yakub b.