836 to 892, a place of pilgrimage of the Shia Moslems, containing magnificent tombs of two of their Imams the tenth and eleventh, with another much venerated shrine of the twelfth, as well as some interesting ruins; and Bagdad.
The principal landowners, who reside in fortified houses, are all Moslems; their estates are cultivated on the metayer system.
The population is now estimated at about 3500 Moslems and 6500 Christians; there are numerous schools, hospitals, &c., conducted by Greeks, Latins and Protestants.
The population in 1905 was about 60,000 (Moslems 7000, Christians 13,000, Jews 40,000).
Under the Moslems (1890); Fergusson, Temples of the Jews (1878); Hayter Lewis, Holy Places of Jerusalem(' 888); Churches of Constantine at Jerusalem (1891); Guthe, "Ausgrabungen in Jer.," in Zeitschrift d.
The population of the island comprises 7000 Moslems, 21,000 Christians, and 2000 Jews.
On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems. Here he died on the 6th of September 1850.
This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tariffs.
The important silk industry, however, began to revive about 18go, and dairy farming is prosperous; but the condition of the vilayet is far less unsettled than that of Macedonia, owing partly to the preponderance of Moslems among the peasantry, and partly to the nearness of Constantinople, with its Western influences.
1514), Hungarian revolutionist, was a Szekler squire and soldier of fortune, who won such a reputation for valour in the Turkish wars that the Hungarian chancellor, Tamas Bakocz, on his return from Rome in 1514 with a papal bull preaching a holy war in Hungary against the Moslems, appointed him to organize and direct the movement.
Of Erzerum, in a large circular pool (altitude, 8625 ft.), which is venerated by Armenians and Moslems, and flows south-east to the plain of Erzerum (5750 ft.).
Moslems and Jews were applying Aristotelian philosophy to rigorously monotheistic faiths; Christianity had been encouraged by Platonism in teaching a trinity of divine persons, and Platonism of a certain order long dominated the middle ages as part of the Augustinian tradition.
In his relations with Moslems, Buddhists and even fetishists the Russian peasant looks rather to conduct than to creed, the latter being in his view simply a matter of nationality.
They continued in Paris for two years longer; but on November 15th, 1536, they started for Italy, to concert with Ignatius plans for converting the Moslems of Palestine.
The archives of the cathedral were plundered by Magyars and Moslems, but several inscriptions, Greek, Slav and Ruman, are left.
It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.
According to the census taken in June 1900, the population of the island was 301,273, the Christians having increased to 267,266, while the Moslems had diminished to 33,281.
The Moslems, as well as the Christians, are of Greek origin and speak Greek.
Owing to the existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops.
A parliamentary regime was thus inaugurated, and party warfare for a time took the place of the old religious antagonism, the Moslems attaching themselves to one or other of the political factions which now made their appearance among the Christians.
An attack made by the Moslems of Candia on the British garrison of that town, with the connivance of the Turkish authorities, brought home to the powers the necessity of removing the Ottoman troops, and the last Turkish soldiers quitted the island on the 14th of November 1898.
At last (July 13, 1909) the powers announced to the Porte, in answer to a formal remonstrance, their decision to withdraw their remaining troops from Crete by July 26 and to station four war-ships off the island to protect the Moslems and to safeguard " the supreme rights " of the Ottoman Empire.
The Moslems, having once overcome the Hindus in almost all parts of India, had not for centuries met with any noteworthy uprising.
Pop. just under 10,000, Moslems being in a slight minority.
The Moslems might have endured a state of "infidels"; they could not endure a state of brigands.
3 After 1143 one may therefore speak of the period of the Epigonithe native Franks, ready to view the Moslems as joint occupants of Syria, and to imitate the dress and habits of their neighbours.
Besides orthodox Moslems there are also Shi`ite sects, as well as a number of religious communities whose doctrine is the outcome of the process of fermentation that characterized the first centuries of Islam.
Of these, according to the calendar, is the " Lesser Festival," called by the Turks Kiitshiik Bairdm (" Lesser Bairam "), or Sheker Bairam (" Sugar Bairam "), and by Arabic-speaking Moslems id al-Fitr (" Festival of Fast-breaking "), or Al-'id as saghir (" Lesser Festival ").
Thus the Roman Catholics prefer the name of Croats, Hrvats or Latins; the Orthodox, of Serbs; the Moslems, of Turks.
As far as possible, the Turkish law was retained during the period of occupation; all cases between Moslems were settled in separate courts by Moslem judges, against whom there was an appeal to the supreme court, aided by assessors.
In 18 95 43% of the population were Orthodox Christians, 35% Moslems and 21% Roman Catholics.
In order to conciliate even the Moslems, who include the bulk of the great landholders and of the urban population, its representatives visit the mosques in state on festivals; grants are made for the Mecca pilgrimage; and even the howling Dervishes in Serajevo are maintained by the state.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
The Moslems of Herzegovina, under Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic, remained loyal to the Porte, but in Bosnia Hussein Aga encountered little resistance.
In Asia Minor the Kurdish troops under Ibrahim Pasha revolted, and, although they were defeated with the loss of their commander, the Kurds continued to attack indiscriminately the Turks, Nestorians and Armenians; disturbances also broke out among the other reactionary Moslems of this region, culminating in a massacre of the Armenians at Adana.
It is one of the four great shrines of the Shiite Moslems in the vilayet of Bagdad.
There is a large mosque with a painted dome connected with this tomb, which is an object of veneration to the Sunni Moslems, but it seems cheap and unworthy in comparison with the magnificent shrine of Kazemain.
This shrine is also venerated by Moslems, who call it the tomb of Yusuf (Joseph).
The Jews bury here their chief priests, a right the Moslems at times contest, and in 1889 a serious conflict between Jews and Moslems resulted from an attempt of the former to exercise this right.
More than two-thirds of the population are Moslems, mostly Shi`as, with the exception of the official classes.
Pop. 30,000; Moslems about 20,000, of whom a large proportion are Kizilbash (Shia); Christians (mostly Armenians), 10,000.
Its population comprises about 993,000 Moslems and 27,000 Christians.
Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems (1890).
He never, indeed, jeopardized the position of the Moslems in Europe as his father had done, and thus the peace of Szeged (1444), which regained the line of the Danube and drove the Turk behind the Balkans, must always be reckoned as the high-water mark of Hungary's Turkish triumphs.
By the promise of loo million dinars to the expropriated Begs, he won over the Moslems of Bosnia, and by similar methods he detached the Slovene section of the newly founded Agricultural party (Zemljoradnici).
Pop. 10,500 (Moslems, 7200; Christians, 3300).
The marabouts took a prominent part in the resistance offered to the French by the Algerian Moslems; and they have been similarly active in politico-religious movements in Tunisia and Tripoli.
They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems. Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.
In 640 Omar sent a fleet of boats across the Red Sea of Institution to protect the Moslems on the Abyssinian coast.
The taxes with the booty from conquests were to be sent to Arabia for distribution among the Moslems. Omar tried to prevent the advance of conquests lest Arabia should suffer.
The abuses and corruptions which had overgrown the practice of orthodox Islam had deeply impressed him, and he set to work to combat them, and to inculcate on all good Moslems a return to the pure simplicity of their original faith.
In the centre of the town stands Meshed (strictly Meshhed) `Ali, the shrine of `Ali, containing the reputed tomb of that caliph, which is regarded by the Shi`ite Moslems as being no less holy than the Ka`ba itself, although it should be said that it is at least very doubtful whether `Ali was actually buried there.
And the Moslems poured into Armenia.
The allies were defeated, and the Moslems undertook the subjugation of Khazaria (651).
Eighty years of warfare followed, but in the end the Moslems prevailed.