The family is connected with the Phalangeridae by means of the musk-kangaroo (Hypsiprymnodon moschatus); forming the sub-family Hypsiprymnodontinae.
Apparently the musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) has little or no near relationship to either the oxen or the sheep; and it is not improbable that its affinities are with the Asiatic takin (Budorcas) and the extinct European Criotherium of the Pliocene of Samos.
(See Udad, Argali, Goat, Ibex, Mouflon, Sheep and Tahr.) The musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) alone represents the family Ovibovinae, which is probably most nearly related to the next group (see Music-ox).
Moschatus, a native of the Pyrenees and the Spanish peninsula, is a cream-coloured subspecies of great beauty with several forms. N.
Moschatus and N.
Moschatus is the Musk-plant, of which the variety Harrisoni is a greatly improved form, with much larger yellow flowers.
Perhaps, however, the most interesting member of the whole group is the tiny musk-kangaroo (Hypsiprymnodon moschatus) of north-east Australia, which alone represents the sub-family Hypsiprymnodontinae, characterized by the presence of an opposable first toe on the hind-foot and the outward inclination of the penultimate upper premolar, as well by the small and feeble claws.