The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
204) terms political "collectivites secondaires"; that the attributes summed up in sovereignty may be separated and divided in many ways; that there may be new forms of combinations between states or parts of states; and that their morphology is subject to no hard and fast rules.
Di,fferentiation.Any account of the general morphology of living organisms is incomplete if it does not include some attempt at an explanation of its causation; though such an attempt cannot be carried far at the present time.
Pure Morphology.Thus it became apparent that the mans and various organs of plants are, for the most part, different forms of a small number of members of the body, which have been distinguished as follows, without any reference to function.
Amongst his published works are Knowledge and Reality (q85); Logic, or the Morphology of Knowledge (1888); Essentials of Logic (1895); Psychology of.
A The ganglia of the nervous _ Tre system offer some important evidence as to the morphology of the head, and are alluded to below.
Details of the morphology of plants will be found in the articles relating to the chief groups of plants, those of animals in the corresponding articles on groups of animals, while the classification of animals adopted in this work will be found in the article ZOOLOGY.
A recent standard work on the morphology of the Hemiptera by R.
One of the early supporters of this natural method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), who in 1813 published his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in which he showed that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the comparative study of the form and development of organs (morphology), not of their functions (physiology).
The study of form and development has advanced under the name "morphology," with the progress of which are associated the names of K.
As remarked in the section on morphology, the Trypanosomes as a whole are preferably regarded as including tion.
Since, however, medusa-colonies occur only in one group, the Siphonophora, and divergent views are held with regard to the morphological interpretation of the members of a siphonophore, only the first three of the above sub-divisions of hydromedusa morphology will be dealt with here in a general way, and the morphology of the Siphonophora will be considered under the heading of the group itself.
By Moor; Darwin and Acton, Practical Physiology of Plants; Davenport, C.B., Experimental Morphology, vols.
Xxxviii.; Meyer, Untersuchungen fiber die Starke-Kdrner (J ena, 1895); Montgomery, Comparative Cytological Studies, with especial regard to the Morphology of the Nucleolus, Journ.
P. Pycraft, " On the Morphology and Phylogeny of the Palaeognathae (Ratitae and Crypturi) and Neognathae," Trans.
The Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.
Lowne, The Anatomy, Physiology, Morphology and Development of the Blow fly (2 vols., London, 1890-1895); G.
For the morphology and classification of snails, see Gastropoda.
This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.
The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.
It is this last department of morphology that was the first to be pursued.
Watase, " On the Morphology of the Compound Eyes of Arthropods," Studies from the Biolog.
No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
The morphology of the Hydrozoa reduces itself, therefore, to a consideration of the morphology of the polyp, of the medusa and of the colony.
The most interesting point about the morphology is the fact that two chromatic bodies, of very unequal size, are almost invariably to be recognized.
Duckworth (Morphology and Anthro- FIG.
- Morphology of Pitchers.
The morphology of the group thus falls naturally into four sections - (I) the hydropolyp, (2) the polyp-colony, (3) the hydromedusa, (4) the medusa-colonies.
Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.
LITERATURE.AS the scope of this article limits it to the general principles of the morphology of plants, comparatively few facts have been adduced.
The morphology of the abdomen, ovipositor and genital armature is dealt with by K.
But it is a widely recognized principle of morphology that a much modified animal is by no means modified to the same degree in all its organs.