Considering the wide differences between the two groups in the size and external characters, and in the mode of life, including the mode of feeding, it is indeed surprising that in every important organ the two groups should show a fundamental morphological identity.
Divergent views have been held as to the morphological significance of the pneumatophore.
Rosenkranz, who in his work Hegel's Naturphilosophie seeks to develop Hegel's idea of an earthorganism in the light of modern science, recognizing in crystallization the morphological element.
Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.
Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.
Morphological identity) between the differentiated tissues of an Anthocerotean sporogonium and those of the sporophyte in the higher plants.
This is a morphological term given to the particular~ type of hydrom found in both Pteridophytes and Phanerogams, together with the parenchyma or stereom, or both, included within the boundaries of the hydrom tissue strand.
Of our knowledge of the structure and course of the vascular strands of the higher plants (IJeber den Bau und die Anordnung der Gefssbundel bei den Stamm und Wurzel der Phanerogamen, Beitrage zur wissenschaftlichen Botanik, Heft i., Leipzig, 1859); to the second the establishment of the sound morphological doctrine of the central cylinder of the axis as the starting-point for the consideration of the general arrangement of the tissues, and the first clear distinction between primary and secondary tissues (Botanische Zeitung, 186I and 1863); to the last the putting together of the facts of plant anatomy known up to the middle of the eighth decade of the century in that great encyclopaedia of plant anatomy, the Vergleichende Anatomie der Vegetationsor gene bei den Phanerogamen und Farnen (Stuttgart, 1876; Eng.
This has had a most important effect on the development in recent years of morphological anatomy.
While convincing us that the plants of past ages in the earths history were exposed to very similar conditions of life, and made very much the same adaptive responses as their modern representatives, one of the main results of this line of work has been to reveal important data enabling us to fill various gaps in our morphological knowledge and to obtain a more complete picture of the evolution of tissues in the vascular plants.
Thirdly, we have to record very considerable progress in our knowledge of distinctively morphological anatomy, i.e.
The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.
Theoretically this branch of the subject should connect with and form the completion of morphological anatomy, but the field, has not yet been sufficiently explored to allow of the necessary synthesis.
The pursuit of this study has not only thrown valuable light on the economy of the plant as a whole, but forms an indispensable condition of the advance of morphological anatomy.
Physiological and Morphological Di,fferentiation.The first indication of this differentiation in the vegetative body of the plant can be seen not only in the terrestrial green plants which have been particularly referred to, but also in the bulkier seaweeds.
B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
Notwithstanding the fact, however, that these cells are capable of acting as very efficient lenses the explanation given by Haberlandt has not been widely accepted and evidence both morphological and physiological has been brought forward against it.
At the present time some objection is being taken to this purely morphological conception of the body and its parts as being too abstract.
But admitting the validity of this criticism, and even going so far as to question the possibility of ever devising absolutely inclusive and, at the same time, exclusive definitions, no sufficient reason is adduced for giving up all attempt at morphological analysis.
All members that belong to the same category are sitting together.
When two organs can be traced along the same line of descent to one primitive form, that is when they are found to be mono phyletic, their homology is complete; when, however, they are traceable to two primitive forms, though these forms belong to the same morphological series, they are polyphyletic and therefore only incompletely homologous.
All organs performing the same function and showing similar adaptations are said to be analogous or homoplastic, whatever their morphological nature may be; hence organs are sometimes both homologous and analogous, sometimes only analogous.
In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..
These changes may be brought about by external causes, such as the attacks of insects or of fungi, alterations in external conditions, &c., or by some unexplained internal disturbance of the morphological equilibrium.
Useful and suggestive as they often are, teratological facts played, at one time, too large a part in the framing of morphological theories; for it was thought that the monstrous form gave a clue to the essential nature of the organ assuming it.
There is morphological differentiation, which can be traced in the distinction of the members of the body, root, stem, leaf, &c.; there is physiological differentiation, which can be traced in the adaptation of these members to various functions.
AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.
Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.
Sachs was the first to formulate the theory that morphological differences are the expression of differences in material composition.
This view he subsequently modified to thisthat a relatively small proportion of diverse substance in each of these parts would suffice to account for their morphological differences.
If this be so,it may justifiably be inferred that both normal and abnormal morphological features may be due to the presence of enzymatic substances secreted by the protoplasm that determine the course of development.
Full morphological and organographical details are given in the articles on the various groups of plants, such as those on the Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, &c. The following works may also be consulted:
The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
From the morphological point of view it is more important to distinguish the associations of forms, such as the mountain mass or group of mountains radiating from a centre, with the valleys furrowing their flanks spreading towards every direction; the mountain chain or line of heights, forming a long narrow ridge or series of ridges separated by parallel valleys; the dissected plateau or highland, divided into mountains of circumdenudation by a system of deeply-cut valleys; and the isolated peak, usually a volcanic cone or a hard rock mass left projecting after the softer strata which embedded it have been worn away (Monadnock of Professor Davis).
The results are as interesting from a morphological point of view (showing the subtle and gradual modifications of these organs in their various adaptations), as they are sparse in taxonomic value, far less satisfactory than are those of the hind-limb.
Classification Of Birds Fiirbringer's great work, published in the year 1888 by the Natura Artis Magistra Society of Amsterdam, enabled Gadow not only to continue for the next five years the same lines of morphological research, but also further to investigate those questions which were still left in abeyance or seemed to require renewed study.
Goodrich, endorsed by Lankester, led to the opinion that under the general morphological conception of "nephridium" were included two distinct sets of organs, viz.
It is possible, however, that those oviducts belong to a separate morphological category, more comparable to the dorsal pores and to abdominal pores in some fishes.
In the Eudrilidae there are spermathecae of different morphological value.
The standing of the Trichoptera in a position almost ancestral to the Lepidoptera is one of the assured results of recent morphological study, the mobile mandibulate pupa and the imperfectly suctorial maxillae of the Trichoptera reappearing in the lowest families of the Lepidoptera.
The vascular system does not readily lend itself to morphological comparison between such widely different animals as Balanoglossus and Amphioxus, and the reader is therefore referred to the memoirs cited at the end of this article for further details.
(From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.) of adaptation to the changed physiological conditions of respiration, and not of morphological significance, since a pair of renal excretory tubes of this nature is found in certain Amphipod Crustacea (Talorchestia, &c.) which have abandoned a purely aquatic life.
L.) compared is difficult when we introduce, as seems inevitable, the question of efficiency and power, and do not confine the question to the perfection of morphological development.
Between the two and at the highest point of the arc, so far as morphological differentiation is concerned, stands the scorpion; near to it in the trilobite's direction (that is, on the ascending side) are Limulus and the Eurypterines - with a long gap, due to obliteration of the record, separating them from the trilobite.
The small forms known as Schizomus and Hubbardia are of special interest from a morphological point of view.
Cuvier's doctrine of four plans of structure was essentially a morphological one, and so was the single-scale doctrine of Buffon and Lamarck, to which it was opposed.
Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.
Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
The wave of morphological speculation, with its outcome of new systems and new theories of classification.
- Diagram of morphological rela veloped mouth, gut and tions of Rotifera.