Morale was low, and many had lost faith in Gabriel.
In1840-1841we have Cours d'histoire de la philosophie morale au XVIII' siecle (5 vols.).
Bellarmine (De jejunio) distinguishes jejunium spirituale (abstinentia a vitiis), jejunium morale (parsimonia et temperantia cibi et potus), jejunium naturale (abstinentia ab omni prorsus cibo et potu, quacunque ratione sumpto), and jejunium ecclesiasticum.
Guyau, La Morale anglaise (1879), E ducation et heredite (1889; Eng.
His chief philosophical works were an edition of the The'odicee of Leibnitz (1874), a monograph on Locke (1878), Devoirs et droits de l'homme (1880), Glissonius utrum Leibnitio de natura substantiae cogitanti quidquam tribuerit (1880)-, De La solidarite morale (4th ed., 1893).
A volume of Essais de morale et de politique introduced him to the notice of Napoleon, who attached him to the staff of the council of state.
In 1783 he was crowned by the academy of Nancy for his Eloge de la poesie, and in 1788 by that of Metz for an Essai sur la regeneration physique et morale des Juifs.
Pliny rightly praises Trajan as the lawgiver and the founder of discipline, and Vegetius classes Augustus, Trajan and Hadrian together as restorers of the morale of the army.
Early in 1531 he lectured publicly on Galen and Hippocrates, while his more serious pursuits seem to have been chequered by acting in a morale comedic, then a very frequent university amusement.
In the Systeme social (1 773), the Politique naturelle (1773-1774) and the Morale universelle (1776) Holbach attempts to rear a system of morality in place of the one he had so fiercely attacked, but these later writings had not a tithe of the popularity and influence of his earlier work.
The very sensation created by the novelty of his methods set standards and started reforms which have greatly improved the morale of the entire force.
A year later he published his Apologie pour la morale des Reformes.
His writings include: Della economia pubblica e delle sue attinenze con la morale e col diritto (Bologna, 1859), and La Chiesa e lo Stato (Milan, 1878).
His chief works are: Essais de critique generale (1854-64), Science de la morale (1869), Uchronie (1876), Esquisse d'une classification syste'matique des doctrines philosophiques (1885-86), Philosophie analytique de l'histoire (1896-97), Histoire et solution des problemes me'taphysiques (1901); Victor Hugo: Le Poete (1893), Le Philosophe (1900); Les Dilemmes de la metaphysique pure (1901); Le Personnalisme (1903); Critique de la doctrine de Kant (1906, published by L.
Darlu, La Morale de Renouvier (1904); G.
In his description of the empire - the exhaustion produced by excessive taxation, the financial ruin of the middle classes, the progressive decline in the morale of the army - we find the explanation of its fall before the Goths twenty years after his death.
Letourneaux, L'Evolution de la morale (1887); K.
(1797); Cours de la morale religieuse (1800); Dernieres vues de politique et de finance (1802); Manuscrits de M.
In La Reforme intellectuelle et morale (1871) he endeavoured at least to bind her wounds, to safeguard her future.
Fouillee, Descartes (Paris, 1893); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (July, 1896, Descartes number); Norman Smith, Studies in the Cartesian Philosophy (1902); R.
In his adoption of a purely defensive policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, he miscalculated the temper of the Athenians, whose morale would have been better sustained by a greater show of activity.
Ceillier's other work, Apologie de la morale des peres de l'eglise (Paris, 1718), also won some celebrity.
Vincenzo Gioberti published in 1843 his famous treatise Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani, a work, which, in striking contrast to the prevailing pessimism of the day, extolled the past greatness and achievements of the Italian people and their present virtues.
In attempts to do so, alike in national and in state politics, it impaired its morale by internal dissension, by intrigues,and by inconsistent factious opposition to Democratic measures on grounds of ultra-strict construction.
He indeed to some degree professed this; and more than once I have heard him say that there were occasions upon which ' la petite morale etait ennemie de la grande.'
The Persian monarchy was strong in its size, in the mere amount of men and treasure it could dispose of under a single hand; the Greek state was strong in its morale, in the energy and discipline of its soldiery.
His publications include: Disquisitio mathematica in causam physicam figurae et magnitudinis terrae (Milan, 1751); Saggio della morale filosofia (Lugano, 1 753); Nova electricitatis theoria (Milan, 1 755); Dissertatio de motu diurno terrae (Pisa, 1758); Dissertationes variae (2 vols.
The so-called first edition of the Speculum Majus, including the Speculum Morale, ascribed to Johann Mentelin and long celebrated as the earliest work printed at Strassburg, has lately been challenged as being only an earlier edition of Vincent's three genuine Specula (c. 1468-70), with which has been bound up the Speculum Morale first printed by Mentelin (c. 1 473-7 6).
- Revue philosophique (1876), monthly; Annales des sciences psychiques (1891); L'Annee philosophique (1890), critical and analytical review of all philosophical works appearing during the year; L'Annee psychologique (1894); Journal de psychologie normale et pathologie (1904); Bulletin de l'institut general de psychologie (1903); Revue de l'hypnotisme et de la psychologie physiologique (1900); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (1893); Revue de philosophie (1900); Revue de psychiatrie (1897).
Vacherot) (1864); La Morale et la loi de l'histoire, setting forth his social views (1868); Mgr.
Trans., London, 1695); Meditations chretiennes et metaphysiques (1683), Traite de morale (1684; separate ed.
Stout, 1891), Esquisse d'une morale sans obligation ni sanction (Eng.
Touchard, La Morale de Descartes (1898); Lucien LevyBruhl, Hist.
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).
His principal work in this line, Theorie de la morale, is little more than a somewhat patronizing reproduction of Kant.
., Vie privee, politique, et morale de L.
C'est par elle que notre philosophie, nos lettres et nos arts ont brine d'un si vif eclat; c'est par elle que notre influence morale s'est exercee en souveraine dans le monde.
In 1796 he was made a member of the Institute, was appointed to a professorship of political economy, and founded tin Journal d'economie publique, de morale et de legislation.
Besides the works already mentioned, de Gerando left many others, of which we may indicate the following: - Considerations sur diverses methodes d'observation des peoples sauvages (Paris, 1801); Eloge de Dumarsais, - discours qui a remporte le prix propose par la seconde classe de l'Institut National (Paris, 1805); Le Visiteur de pauvre (Paris, 1820); Instituts du droit administratif (4 vols., Paris, 1830); Cours normal des instituteurs primaires ou directions relatives a l'education physique, morale, et intellectuelle dans les ecoles primaires (Paris, 1832); De l'education des sourds-muets (2 vols., Paris, 1832); De la bienfaisance publique (4 vols., 1838).
His lectures at Fontenoy have been published in two volumes entitled Lecons de psychologie appliquee a l'education, and Lecons de morale; those delivered at the Sorbonne are collected in L'Education dans l'universite (1892).
Guyau, La Morale d'Epicure et ses rapports avec les doctrines contemporaines (Paris, 1878; revised and enlarged, 1881); F.
Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale, i.
He identifies religion with civilization, and in his treatise Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani arrives at the conclusion that the church is the axis on which the well-being of human life revolves.
Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani and the Prolegomeni to the same, and soon afterwards his triumphant exposure of the Jesuits, Il Gesuita moderno, no doubt hastened - the transfer of rule from clerical to civil hands.
Among his own productions are a treatise, De la morale des peres, a history of ancient treaties contained in the Supplement au grand corps diplomatique, and the curious Traite du jeu (1709), in which he defends the morality of games of chance.
In the evenings he wrote for the Revue des deux mondes and the Debats the exquisite essays which appeared in 1857 and 1859 under the titles Etudes d'histoire religieuse and Essais de morale et de critique.