The North-West Company of Montreal occupied the northern part of Alberta district before the Hudson's Bay Company succeeded in coming from Hudson Bay to take possession of it.
The first hold of the Athabasca region was gained by Peter Pond, who, on behalf of the North-West Company of Montreal, built Fort Athabasca on river La Biche in 1778.
From 1861 until his death, at Montreal, on the 27th of May 1864, he was U.S. consul-general in Canada.
LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU (1786-1871), Canadian rebel and politician, son of Joseph Papineau, royal notary and member of the house of Assembly of Lower Canada, was born at Montreal on the 7th of October 1786.
The bishop of Montreal and of Quebec, and a large number of the citizens, protested, but nothing less than bloodshed would satisfy the misguided patriots.
Attempts have been made to transfer the responsibility for the act of violence to O'Callaghan and other prominent leaders in the revolt; but Papineau's own words, "The patriots of this city would have avenged the massacre but they were so poor and so badly organized that they were not fit to meet the regular troops," prove that he did not discountenance recourse to arms. Writing of the events of 1837 in the year 1848 he said: "The smallest success at Montreal or Toronto would have induced the American government, in spite of its president, to support the movement."
David, Les Deux Papineau; Fennings Taylor, Louis Joseph Papineau (Montreal, 1865); Alfred De Celles, PapineauCartier (Toronto, 1906); H.
He was opposed to political Zionism, and the Montreal Conference (1897), at his instigation, passed resolutions disapproving of the attempt to establish a Jewish state, and affirming that the Jewish Messianic hope pointed to a great universal brotherhood.
It was followed by the British American Register i(Quebec, 1803), L'Abeille canadienne (Montreal, 1818), edited by H.
Meziere, the Canadian Magazine (Montreal, 1823-1825), the (Canadian Review (Montreal, 1824-1826), La Bibliotheque canadienne (Montreal, 1825-1830), continued as L'Observateur (1830-1831), and the Magasin du Bas-Canada (Montreal, 1832).
The Literary Garland (Montreal, 1838-1850), edited by John Gibson, was for some time the only English magazine published in Canada.
Later magazines were L'Echo du cabinet du lecture paroissial (Montreal, 18 59), 15 vols.; Le Foyer canadien (Quebec, 1863-1866), one of the most interesting French-Canadian reviews; La Revue canadienne, which was started at Montreal in 1864, and contained the best writings of contemporary French-Canadian litterateurs; La Revue de Montreal (1877-1881), edited by the abbe T.
Later in this year he made a most miserable fiasco of the campaign against Montreal, and this finally brought his military career to a dishonourable end.
In April 1776 he went to Montreal with Charles Carroll, Samuel Chase and John Carroll, as a member of the commission which conferred with General Arnold, and attempted without success to gain the co-operation of Canada.
Immediately after his return from Montreal he was a member of the committee of five appointed to draw up the Declaration of Independence, but he took no actual part himself in drafting that instrument, aside from suggesting the change or insertion of a few words in Jefferson's draft.
He was made governor of Montreal, and promoted major-general in 1761, and in 1763 succeeded Amherst in the command of the British forces in America; in 1770 he was made a lieutenantgeneral.
Algonquin-Iroquois Canada, thanks to the Geological Survey and the Department of Education in Ontario, has revealed old Indian camps, mounds and earthworks along the northern drainage of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and pottery in a curved line from Montreal to Lake of the Woods.
The English had a decided advantage over the French in that they could furnish goods for the Indian trade much cheaper than their rivals, and when Governor Burnet saw that this advantage was being lost by a trade between Albany and Montreal he persuaded the assembly to pass an act (1720) prohibiting it.
The assent of Lord Elgin to the bill provoked in Montreal a riot which ended in the burning of the houses of parliament, and so great was the indignation of the hitherto ultra-loyal Conservative party that many of its most prominent members signed a document favouring annexation to the United States; Macdonald on the other hand took steps, in conjunction with others, to form a British-American league, having for its object the confederation of all the provinces, the strengthening of the connexion with the mother country, and the adoption of a national commercial policy.
Warren; Report on the Geology and Resources of the Region in the Vicinity of the Forty-Ninth Parallel (Montreal, 1875), by George M.
"HENRI BOURASSA (1868-), French Canadian politician, was born in Montreal Sept.
Through the British lines to notify Montgomery, at Montreal, of Arnold's arrival.
In 1807 he married the youthful widow of Andrew McGill, a wealthy merchant of Montreal, and brother of the founder of McGill University.
To Nur-ed-din he was invariably submissive, but from the vigour which he employed in adding to the fortifications of Cairo and the haste with which he retreated from an attack on Montreal (1171) and Kerak (1173) it is clear that he feared his lord's jealousy.
The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec. It is probable that politically Canada would have followed the course of the States to the south but for the planting of a French colony with widely extended trading posts along the easily ascended channel of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes, so that this river was the ultimate bond of union between Canada and the empire.
Similar flooding takes place in several other important northward-flowing rivers in Canada, the St Lawrence at Montreal affording the best-known instance.
In Quebec the chief portion is south of the St Lawrence on the low plain extending from Montreal to the mountains of the " Eastern Townships," while in Ontario it extends from the Archean on the north to the St Lawrence and Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron.
In Ontario the flora of the northern part is much the same as that of the Gulf of St Lawrence, but from Montreal along the Ottawa and St Lawrence valleys the flora takes a more southern aspect, and trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants not found in the eastern parts of the Dominion become common.
There are four kinds of savings banks in Canada: - (1) the post-office savings banks; (2) the government savings banks of the Maritime provinces taken over at federation and being gradually merged with the former; (3) two special savings banks in the cities of Montreal and Quebec; (4) the savings bank departments of the chartered banks.
The chief seaports from east to west are Halifax, N.S., Sydney, N.S., St John, N.B., Quebec and Montreal on the Atlantic; and Vancouver, Esquimalt and Victoria, B.C.; on the Pacific. Halifax is the ocean terminus of the Intercolonial railway; St John, Halifax and Vancouver of the Canadian Pacific railway.
River canal system from Lake Superior to tide water overcomes a difference of about 600 ft., and carries large quantities of grain from the west to Montreal, the head of summer navigation on the Atlantic. These canals have a minimum depth of 14 ft.
So great, however, is the desire to shorten the time and distance necessary for the transportation of grain from Lake Superior to Montreal that an increasing quantity is taken by water as far as the Lake Huron and Georgian Bay ports, and thence by rail to Montreal.
(1800); McGill University, Montreal, Que.
(1821); Laval University, Quebec, and Montreal, Que.
Of these McGill (see Montreal) is especially noted for the excellence of its training in practical and applied science.
It also arranged with the various railway companies to run refrigerator cars weekly on the main lines leading to Montreal and other export points.
West of Montreal, have been established to promote the cause of rural education upon the lines of nature study, with school gardens, manual training, domestic science, &c., which on both sides of the Atlantic are now being found so effective in the hands of properly trained and enthusiastic teachers.
In the following year Cartier sailed up the river as far as the Lachine Rapids, to the spot where Montreal now stands.
On a stormy August night in 1689 150o Iroquois burst in on the village of Lachine near Montreal, butchered 200 of its people, and carried off more than loo to be tortured to death at their leisure.
On the 13th of September 1 759 Wolfe won his great victory before Quebec, which involved the fall of that place, and a year later at Montreal the French army in Canada surrendered.
They took Montreal and besieged Quebec during the winter of 1775-1776; but the prudent leadership of Sir Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester, saved Quebec and in 1776 the revolutionary army withdrew unsuccessful from Canada.
The issue was finally settled in 1849 when the earl of Elgin was governor and the Canadian legislature, sitting at Montreal, passed by a large majority the Rebellion Losses Bill, compensating citizens, some of them French, in Lower Canada, for losses incurred at the hands of the loyal party during the rebellion a decade earlier.
The mob in Montreal burned the parliament buildings and stoned Lord Elgin himself because he gave the royal assent to the bill.
Sir Hugh Allan of Montreal was at the head of the one, and the Hon.
Al' Gill University at Montreal has been enlarged and splendidly endowed by the munificence of a few private individuals; Toronto University by the provincial legislature of Ontario; Queen's University at Kingston largely by the support of its own graduates and friends.
While the older universities have increased greatly in influence and efficiency, the following new foundations have been made since confederation: - University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1877; Presbyterian College, Winnipeg, 1870; Methodist College, Winnipeg, 1888; Wesleyan College, Montreal, 1873; Presbyterian College, Montreal, 1868; School of Practical Science, Toronto, 1877; Royal Military College, Kingston, 1875; M`Master University, Toronto, 1888.
On leaving it he entered a law office at Montreal and took the law course at McGill University.
He began to practise law in Montreal, but owing to ill-health soon removed to Athabaska, where he opened a law office and undertook also to edit Le Defricheur, a newspaper then on the eve of collapse.
While at Montreal he had joined the Institut Canadien, a literary and scientific society which, owing to its liberal discussions and the fact that certain books upon its shelves were on the Index expurgatorius, was finally condemned by the Roman Catholic authorities.
David, Laurier et son temps (Montreal, 1905); see also Henri Moreau, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Premier Ministre du Canada (Paris, 1902); and the collection of Laurier's speeches from 1871 to 1890, compiled by Ulric Barthe (Quebec, 1890).