Returning to Montevideo, he formed the Italian Legion, with which he won the battles of Cerro and Sant' Antonio in the spring of 1846, and assured the freedom of Uruguay.
Forsaking the priesthood about 1864, he was employed as a diplomatist by the British government in Egypt, Asia Minor, the West Indies, and Bulgaria, being appointed resident minister in Uruguay in 1884; he died at Montevideo on the 30th of September 1888.
The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.
The siege of Montevideo led to a joint intervention of England and France.
A large army of twenty-four thousand men was collected at Montevideo, and on the 8th of January 1852 the allied forces crossed the Parana and the road to Buenos Aires lay open before them.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
On the 16th of July 1893 the first little army of " New Australians " left Sydney in the " Royal Tar," which arrived at Montevideo on the 31st of August.
Cuyaba has uninterrupted steamer communication with Montevideo, about 2500 m.
Besides the rivers mentioned, the chief streams are the Santa Lucia, which falls into the Plata a little west of Montevideo; the Queguay, in Paysandu; and the Cebollati, rising in the sierras in Minas and flowing into Lake Mirim.
M., ranging (exclusive of Montevideo) from 47.9 in Canelones to 5.8 in Tacuarembo and 6 in Artigas.
The principal towns are Montevideo, Salto, Paysandu and San Jose.
Since 1890 the cultivation of the grape and the manufacture of wine have considerably extended, especially in the department of Salto, Montevideo, Canelones and Colonia.
The business of shipping live sheep and frozen mutton has not been attempted on a large scale, owing principally to the lack of facilities for loading at the port of Montevideo or elsewhere.
The economic development of Uruguay was retarded by the corruption of successive governments, by revolutionary outbreaks, by the seizure of farm stock, without adequate compensation, for the support of military forces, by the consequences of reckless borrowing and over-trading in 1889 and 1890, and also by the transference of commercial undertakings from Montevideo to Buenos Aires between 1890 and 1897, on the opening of the harbour and docks at that port.
The foreign trade passes mainly through Montevideo, wherekhe port has been greatly improved.
There are civil, commercial and criminal courts in Montevideo, a departmental court in each departmental capital, and a justice of the peace in each of 205 judicial districts into which the republic is divided, with sub-district courts under deputy judges in addition.
Montevideo possesses a university and a number of preparatory schools, a state-supported technical school and a military college.
The state religion is Roman Catholic, and there is an archbishop of Montevideo with two suffragan bishops.
A new consolidated debt of £20,500,000 was issued at 32% interest, and, as security for payment of interest, 45% of the customs receipts at Montevideo was assigned.
It was gradually consummated by the military and commercial settlements of the Portuguese, and subsequently by the Spaniards, who established themselves formally in Montevideo under Governor Zavala of Buenos Aires in 1726, and demolished the rival Portuguese settlement in Colonia in 1777.
From 1750 Montevideo enjoyed a provincial government independent of that of Buenos Aires.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
During the War of Independence, Montevideo was taken in 1814 by the Buenos-Airean general Alvear (see further Montevideo).
Subsequently Juan Manuel Rosas, dictator of Buenos Aires, interfered in the intestine quarrels of Uruguay; and Montevideo was besieged by his forces, allied with the native partisans of General Oribe, for nine years (1843-52).
On the 25th of August 1897 Borda, after attending a Te Deum at the cathedral in Montevideo, was shot dead by a man named Arredondo, who was sentenced in 1899 to two years' imprisonment.
Bauza, La Domination Espanola en el Uruguay (Montevideo, 1880); F.
De Pena, Album de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1882); R.
Lomba, La Republica Oriental del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1884); The Uruguay Republic, Territory and Conditions, reprinted by order of the ConsulGeneral of Uruguay (London, 1888); V.
Arreguine, Historia del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1892); M.
De Chicago (Montevideo, 1893) O.
Aran j o, Compendio de la Geografia Nacional (Montevideo, 1894); Uruguay, its Geography, History, &c. (Liverpool, 1897); P. F.
Martin, Through Five Republics (London, 1905); Anuario Estadistico and Anuario Demografico (official, Montevideo); British and American Consular Reports; Publications, Bureau of American Republics.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
The coastwise service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to Para and Manaos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.
From Montevideo river steamers are sent up the Parana and Paraguay rivers to Corumba and Cuyaba, in the state of Matto Grosso.
A coastwise cable runs from Para to Montevideo with double cables between Pernambuco and Montevideo.
The same principle which dictated the conquest of French Guiana originated attempts to seize the Spanish colonies of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, Portugal being also at war with Spain.
The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and Sao Paulo decided the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; Brazil de- a force of 5000 troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps; and the irregulars integral of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops, were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the river Uruguay.
G y g possession of the city of Montevideo in January 1817, and the territory of Misiones was afterwards occupied.
The troops in Montevideo also embarked for Portugal, and the Banda Oriental remained a part of Brazil with the title of the Provincia Cisplatina.
The ministry of the Visconde de Olinda in 1849 entered into alliances with the governors of Montevideo, Paraguay and the states of Entre Rios and Corrientes, for the purpose of maintaining the integrity of the republics of Uruguay and Paraguay, which Rosas intended to reunite to Buenos Aires, and the troops of Rosas which besieged Montevideo were forced to capitulate.
The defeat, in 1806 and 1807, of two British expeditions to Buenos Aires and Montevideo, resulting in the capitulation of the English force, gave a great impulse to the self-reliance of the colonists, to whom the credit of the victory entirely belonged.
In the countries which bound its northern limit it is not frequently met with, but in South America it is quite common, and Don Felix de Azara states that when the Spaniards first settled in the district between Montevideo and Santa Fe, as many as two thousand were killed yearly.
The port is connected with Buenos Aires and Montevideo by regular lines of river steamers, which are its only means of trade communication with the outer world, and with the inland town of Villa Rica (95 m.) by a railway worked by an English company.
Oranges are exported to Buenos Aires, Rosario and Montevideo, and are largely used for fattening hogs.
Party first in a small steamer from South Georgia, then in a trawler from Montevideo, then in a little motor schooner from Punta Arenas, all of which were driven back by the ice floes near the South Shetlands, and finally in the " Yelcho," a tug from Punta Arenas, in which he reached the island on Aug.
MONTEVIDEO, SAN FELIPE Y SANTIAGO DE, capital and chief port of Uruguay, and capital of the department of Montevideo, on the northern shore of the Rio de la Plata estuary, 120 m.
The streets are well paved and have sufficient slope at all points to give easy surface drainage; Montevideo has the reputation of being one of the cleanest cities of the world.
The buildings of Montevideo are chiefly of brick and broken stone, covered outside with plaster and stucco, of one to three storeys, with flat roofs, usually surmounted by a square tower, or mirador.