£9c., (1785); Eloge de Montesquieu (1785), published 1883 by M.
The instructions for the guidance of the Assembly were prepared by the empress herself and were, as she frankly admitted, the result of " pillaging the philosophers of the West," especially Montesquieu and Beccaria.
She was well versed in mathematics, which she studied at the university of Moscow, and in general literature her favourite authors were Bayle, Montesquieu, Boileau, Voltaire and Helvetius.
Bardoux, Les Legistes et leur influence sur la soc.francaise; Fournol, Bodin predecesseur de Montesquieu (Paris, 1896); for his political economy, J.
In the political part of his system Ferguson follows Montesquieu, and pleads the cause of well-regulated liberty and free government.
The text is filled with valuable information on the state of the family and property in the 6th century, and it is astonishing to find Montesquieu describing the Salic Law as the law of a people ignorant of landed property.
Freron on the orthodox side had his share of it, as well as Voltaire, Helvetius, Diderot and Montesquieu on that of the innovators.
But Rousseau had not, like Montesquieu, a position which guaranteed him from serious danger; he was not wealthy like Helvetius; he had not the wonderful suppleness and trickiness which even without his wealth would probably have defended Voltaire himself; and he lacked entirely the "bottom" of Freron and Diderot.
The Jesuits, on the other hand, claimed Corneille and Moliere, as well as Descartes and Bossuet, Fontenelle, Montesquieu and Voltaire.
His course of lectures was divided into four parts-(1) natural theology; (2) ethics; (3) a treatment of that branch of morality which relates to justice, a subject which he handled historically after the manner of Montesquieu; (4) a study of those political regulations which are founded, not upon the principle of justice, but that of expediency, and which are calculated to increase the riches, the power and the prosperity of a state.
That the inductive spirit exercised no influence on Scottish philosophers is certainly not true; Montesquieu, whose method is essentially inductive, was in Smith's time closely studied by Smith's fellow-countrymen.
But besides this, as Leslie has pointed out, the influence of Montesquieu tended to counterbalance the theoretic prepossessions produced by the doctrine of the jus naturae.
It was formerly wrongly supposed, and even Locke and Montesquieu did not escape this error, that the fall in the value of the precious metals consequent on the discovery of the American mines was the real cause of the general lowering of the rate of interest in Europe.
The study of Montesquieu seems to have directed his attention towards economic questions; and his first publication (1762) was a tract on the derangement of the currency in the Milanese states, with a proposal for its remedy.
It had "been treated in such a manner by some of the French economists, occasionally by Montesquieu, and, among English writers, by Dr Franklin, Sir James Steuart, Arthur Young and Rev. J.
He had studied Gibbon, Hume and Montesquieu in Switzerland.
His theories had a deep and broad basis in English whiggism; and though he may well have found at least confirmation of his own ideas in French writers - and notably in Condorcet - he did not read sympathetically the writers commonly named, Rousseau and Montesquieu; besides, his democracy was seasoned, and he was rather a teacher than a student of revolutionary politics when he went to Paris.
Bossuet and the old-fashioned divines had believed in an elaborate system of checks and balances - popes, councils, bishops, temporal sovereigns each limiting and controlling the other - just as Montesquieu and Alexander Hamilton had believed in a careful separation of the executive from the legislative power.
This code gave occasion to some well-known comments by Montesquieu and Gibbon, and has been discussed by Savigny (Geschichte des riimischen Rechts, ii.
Most of the writings of Florian, Marmontel, Le Sage, Montesquieu and others were rapidly translated into Rumanian.
His manner, which is partly imitated from Montesquieu, has considerable charm; and he was the first and has remained the chief writer to put the orthodox liberal ideas which governed European politics during the first half or two-thirds of the 19th century into an orderly and attractive shape.
It included, as was natural enough in a warm admirer of Montesquieu, a fragment on law, of which he justly said that it ought to be the leading science in every well-ordered commonwealth.
A phrase of Montesquieu, placed at the head of this work, sums up the views of the young theorist: "The people, possessing the supreme power, should do for itself all that it is able to do; what it cannot do well, it must do through its elected representatives."
Voltaire, Montesquieu, the Encyclopaedists and the Physiocrats (recurring to the tradition of Bayle and Fontenelle), by dissolving in their analytical crucible all consecrated beliefs and all fixed institutions, brought back into the human society of the 18th century that humanity which had been so rudely eliminated.
Whilst some, like Voltaire and the Physiocrats, representatives of the privileged classes and careless of political rights, wished to make use of the omnipotence of the prince to accomplish desirable reforms, or, like Montesquieu, adversely criticized despotism and extolled moderate governments, other, plebeiaris like Rousseau, proclaimed the theory of the social contract and the sovereignty of the people.
As he grew older, however, his social successes ceased, and he began to dream of more lasting distinctions, stimulated by the success of Maupertuis as a mathematician, of Voltaire as a poet, of Montesquieu as a philosopher.
It was only this necessity which induced statesmen like Colbert to countenance them, and Montesquieu took the same view (Esprit des lois, t.
"For instance, he is collecting a library and has made it a rule not to buy a new book till he has read what he had already bought--Sismondi and Rousseau and Montesquieu," he added with a smile.
Montesquieu made many contributions to this.
After a visit to his uncle, the archbishop of Reims, he returned to St Sulpice to finish his preliminary training for the church, but in his spare time he read the works of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and other writers who were beginning to undermine the authority of the ancien regime, both in church and state.
De Montesquieu Fezensac, Le Systeme politique d'Aug.
The effect of pardon, whether actual or constructive, is to put the person pardoned in the position of an innocent man, so that he may have 1 See further, on the ethical aspect, Montesquieu, Esprit des lois, bk.
This "confusion of powers," which was contrary to the philosophical theories - those of Montesquieu especially - which had inspired the Revolution at first, was one of the essential characteristics of the Convention.
Aristotle, admitting its usefulness, rightly describes ostracism as in theory tyrannical; Montesquieu (Esprit des lois, xii.
From L'Esprit des lois of Montesquieu he learnt suggestive thoughts like the following: "L'objet de la guerre, c'est la victoire; celui de la victoire, la conquete; celui de la conquete, l'occupation."
He was a son of the 18th century; he had studied with sympathy Locke and Montesquieu; no one appreciated more keenly than he did political liberty and the freedom of an Englishman.