Marcionites and Montanists had also worked in the field.
Customary to fast during Holy Week; and earlier still the Montanists boasted that they observed a two weeks' fast instead of one.
The Montanists of Asia Minor defended them in their integrity, with one slight modification: they announced that Pepuza, the city of Montanus, would be the site of the New Jerusalem and the millennial kingdom.
The fact is that the Montanists represented the conservatism of their day, and even now the Roman Church admits the right of laymen to baptize when a priest cannot be had.
ASCITANS (or Ascitae; from avrcos, the Greek for a wine-skin), a peculiar sect of 2nd-century Christians (Montanists), who introduced the practice of dancing round a wine-skin at their meetings.
If it was desired to get rid of these, an effort was made to impute to them some deviation from the rule of faith; and under this pretext the church freed herself from the Montanists and the Monarchians.
In so doing, however, they had to withdraw from the Church, to be known as "Montanists," or "Kataphrygians," and thus to assume the character of the sect.
This was the commencement of the excommunication or secession of the Montanists in Asia Minor.
It is true that there was no rivalry between the new organization and the old, as in Asia and Phrygia, for the Western Montanists recognized in its main features the Catholic organization as it had been developed in the contest with Gnosticism; but the demand that the "organs of the Spirit" should direct the whole discipline of the congregation contained implicitly a protest against the actual constitution of the Church.
For nearly five years (202-207) the Carthaginian Montanists strove to remain within the Church, which was as dear to them as it was to their opponents.
At Rome and Carthage, and in all other places where sincere Montanists were found, they were confronted by the imposing edifice of the Catholic Church, and they had neither the courage nor the inclination to undermine her sacred foundations.
At rare intervals a vision might perhaps be vouchsafed to some Montanistic old woman, or a brother might now and then have a dream that seemed to be of supernatural origin; but the overmastering power of religious enthusiasm was a thing of which the Montanists knew as little as the Catholics.
The early Montanists (the prophets themselves) used expressions which seem to indicate a Monarchian conception of the person of Christ.
After the close of the 2nd century we find two sections amongst the Western Montanists, just as amongst the Western Catholics - there were some who adopted the Logos-Christology, and others who remained Monarchians.1 Sources.
One great divergence is manifest: Tertullian never himself deviated from orthodoxy and vehemently asserts the orthodoxy of all Montanists, but both Montanus ("I am the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost") and Maximilla ("I am Word and Spirit and Power") used language which has a distinctly "monarchian" flavour.
There were really divided views on the question of the Divine Monarchy among the Montanists as among the Catholics.
An examination of Phrygian as distinct from African Montanism leads to the following conclusions: (I) The Phrygians claimed to have received the prophetic gift by way of succession just as the bishops traced their office back to the apostles; Tertullian seems to ignore the intermediate steps between the apostles and Montanus; (2) the "ecstasy" of the African section was much more restrained than the ravings of the Phrygians; (3) the original Montanists followed the example of the Phrygian native cults in assigning a prominent place to women, Tertullian on the other hand (De virg.
There is also good reason to doubt whether the Phrygian Montanists were anything like so ascetic and desirous of martyrdom as has been generally considered.
But could Christians sufficiently numerous to deserve a long discussion by St Epiphanius in 374-377, who upheld the Synoptists, stoutly opposed the Gnostics and Montanists, and had escaped every special designation till the bishop nicknamed them the " Alogoi " (irrational rejectors of the Logos-Gospel), dare, in such a time and country, to hold such views, had the apostolic origin been incontestable ?
In its conflict with Gnostics, Marcionites and Montanists the Church was led to insist more and more upon its Bible, its own Bible, just as in its older controversy with the Jews it had to insist on the Bible which it inherited from them.
The Marcionites, the Ebionites, or Judaeo-Christians of Palestine, the Montanists of Phrygia, Africa and Galatia, the confessor Alcibiades of Lyons, c. A.D.
By the African Montanists in the 2nd century.
Apelleiacos (lost), De paradiso (lost), De fato (lost), De anima (the first book on Christian psychology), De carne Christi, De resurrectione carnis, and De spe fidelium (lost), were all written after Tertullian had recognized the prophetic claims of the Montanists, but before he had left the church.
This failing, he ejected suspected prelates, and occasionally persecuted them, though with far less severity than that applied to the heretics of a deeper dye, such as Montanists or even Arians.
The severities directed against the Montanists of Phrygia led to a furious war, in which most of the sectaries perished, while the doctrine was not extinguished.
Especially the wild ecstatic character and the prophecies of the Montanists recall the old type of religion.
After an apparently successful attempt to enforce the baptism of all Jews and Montanists in his realm (722), he issued a series of edicts against the worship of images (726-729).
Though these extremists were presently branded as heretics for their eccentric ultraascetic tenets (Montanists, Cathari), yet as early as Tertullian's time (c. A.D.