In the monothelite controversy then raging he acted with cautious reserve, refraining at least from express condemnation of the Typus of Constans II.
Relying on the support of the Monothelite party, he made some pretensions to the throne on the outbreak of the first great rebellion against Justinian; these led to his relegation to Cephalonia by Tiberius Absimarus, and subsequently to his banishment, by order of Justinian, to Cherson.
By the 6th century it was evidently virtually independent again; its Christianization had begun with the immigration of Monothelite sectaries, flying from persecution in the Antioch district and Orontes valley.
ST MAXIMUS (c. 580-662), abbot of Chrysopolis, known as "the Confessor" from his orthodox zeal in the Monothelite (q.v.) controversy, or as "the monk," was born of noble parentage at Constantinople about the year 580.
In 630 he abandoned the secular life and entered the monastery of Chrysopolis (Scutari), actuated, it was believed, less by any longing for the life of a recluse than by the dissatisfaction he felt with the Monothelite leanings of his master.
In 649, after the accession of Martin I., he went to Rome, and did much to fan the zeal of the new pope, who in October of that year held the (first) Lateran synod, by which not only the Monothelite doctrine but also the moderating ecthesis of Heraclius and typus of Constans II.
Maximus was not only a leader in the Monothelite struggle but a mystic who zealously followed and advocated the system of Pseudo-Dionysius, while adding to it an ethical element in the conception of.
After the termination of the monothelite controversy (638-680), creed and doctrines were complete; it was only necessary to preserve them intact.
Almost his first official act was to summon a synod (the first Lateran) for dealing with the Monothelite heresy.
It met in the Lateran church, was attended by one hundred and five bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, a few being from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or "secretarii" from the 5th to the 31st of October 649, and in twenty canons condemned the Monothelite heresy, its authors, and the writings by which it had been promulgated.
680; that these converted part of the old mountain folk, who already held some kind of Incarnationist creed; and that their first patriarch and his successors, for about 500 years at any rate, were Monothelite, and perhaps also Monophysite.