Europe persistently refused to assist the republic to preserve a trade in which she had established a rigid monopoly, and Venice was left to fight the Turk single-handed.
A monopoly of soap-making was farmed to a corporation of soap-boilers in London - a proceeding which led to serious complications.
Other principal items of revenue were: Registration 25 millions, stamps 74 millions, customs 18 millions, inland revenue on liquors 164 millions, receipts from the tobacco monopoly 18 millions, receipts from post office 104 millions.
The closing of the great council was, no doubt, mainly due to the slowly formed resolution on the part of the great commercial families to secure a monopoly in the Levant trade which the Fourth Crusade had placed definitely in their hands.
Negotiations were initiated in 1910 for the prolongation of the concession of the tobacco monopoly, which reaches its term in 1913.
The government acquired the perpetual and exclusive wayleaves for telegraph lines over the railways, but the monopoly of the Postmaster-General does not apply to those numerous wires which are required for the protection of life on railways.
A scandal concerning the tobacco monopoly led to the fall of Menabrea, who was succeeded in.
The ordinary revenue, obtained principally from the sale of spirits (28%), which is a state monopoly, from state railways (231%) and customs (roe %), steadily rose from a total of £132,750,000 in 1895 to a total of £214,360,000 in 1905.
The salt monopoly is mentioned in I Macc. 30, 29; I I, 35, a suspected source, but supported in this detail by the analogy of Ptolemaic Egypt and Rome.
Naxos, the largest and most fertile island of the group, contains the highest mountain in the Cyclades (Zia, 3290 ft.); the island annually exports upwards of 2000 tons of emery, a state monopoly the proceeds of which are now hypothecated to the foreign debt.
Things went better with it from that time until 1894-1895, when, owing to internal troubles in the empire, and the consequent fear of creating worse disorders, by the strict enforcement of the monopoly, the government withdrew most of its support, and contraband enormously increased.
The scattered settlements of Europeans on the southern parts of the coasts are Danish, and the trade is a monopoly of the Danish government.
In 1774 the trade ceased to be profitable as a private monopoly, and to prevent it being abandoned the government took it over.
The people of Ceos fought on the Greek side at Artemisium and Salamis; they joined the Delian League and also the later Athenian alliance in 377 B.C. They revolted in 3 6 3-3 62, but were reduced again, and the Athenians established a monopoly of the ruddle, or red earth, which was one of the most valuable products of the island.
At the beginning of the 5th century it seems to have been an entrepot of the Pontic grain trade, at a later date an Athenian monopoly (Herod.
It has been erroneously represented by interested persons that the Pharmaceutical Society desires a monopoly of the sale of poisons.
Of the Azores, to the west of which the Spaniards were authorized to explore and to the east of which the Portuguese received the monopoly of discovery.
Since 1894 the government has had a monopoly in retailing spirituous liquors, but not wine or beer; but distilling, a very widespread industry, is left in private hands.
In addition to the above-mentioned debt to the powers, the state contracted a loan of £60,000 in 1901 to acquire the rights and privileges of the Ottoman Debt, to which the salt monopoly has been conceded for 20 years.
Even churchmen had been alienated by his suppression of monasteries and by his monopoly of ecclesiastical power; and his only support was the king, who had now developed a determination to rule himself.
Berthelot that the workers in these processes, which were a monopoly of the priestly caste and were kept strictly secret, though fully aware that their products were not truly gold, were in time led by their success in deceiving the public to deceive themselves also, and to come to believe that they actually had the power of making gold from substances which were not gold.
Tobacco Regie.-From the beginning of the year 1884 the tobacco revenue has been worked as a monopoly by a company formed under Ottoman law, styled " La Regie Imperiale Cointeressee des Tabacs Ottomans."
This company has the absolute monopoly of the manufacture and of the purchase and sale of tobacco throughout the Ottoman Empire, with the exception of the Lebanon and Crete, but exportation remains free.
The colonial period was one of strict repression, the intellectual life of the people being jealously supervised by the church to protect itself against heresy, and their progress being restricted by the Portuguese crown to protect its monopoly of the natural resources of the country.
The salt-pans at Cagliari and of Carloforte are of considerable importance; they are let by the government to contractors, who have the sole right of manufacture, but are bound to sell the salt necessary for Sardinian consumption at 35 centesimi (3d.) per cwt.; the government does not exercise the salt monopoly in Sardinia any more than in Sicily, but in the latter island the right of manufacture is unrestricted.