On the pilgrims, against which the Papacy had already been forced to remonstrate; nor were the Italian towns, with the exception of favoured Venice, disposed to be friendly to the great monopolist city of Constantinople.
The end of the 19th century saw a revival of this same tyrannical monopolist policy in the Transvaal.
If Watermeyer's formula, " In all things political, purely despotic; in all things commercial, purely monopolist," was true of the government of the Dutch East India Company in the 18th century, it was equally true of Kruger's government in the latter part of the 19th.
Great loss was necessarily inflicted on native traders by the monopolist system, which pressed most hardly on the Mahommedans, who had been the chief carriers in Indian waters.
The Oldembourg Company (1754) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to the Path and Maranhao Company (1755) and the Pernambuco and Parahyba Company (1759).
As presidential nominee of the Greenback and Anti-Monopolist parties, he polled 175,370 votes in 1884, when he had bitterly opposed the nomination by the Democratic party of Grover Cleveland, to defeat whom he tried to "throw" his own votes in Massachusetts and New York to the Republican candidate.