The anatomical construction of these plants presents many peculiarities which have given rise to discussion as to the allocation of the order among the dicotyledons or among the monocotyledons, the general balance of opinion being in favour of the former view.
In Monocotyledons a similar advance from hypogyny to epigyny is observed, and from the dorsiventral to the radial type of flower.
Well-defined polypetalous and gamopetalous genera sometimes occur in the same order, and even Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are classed together where they have some .striking physiological character in common.
The orders are carefully characterized, and those of Angiosperms are grouped in fourteen classes under the two main divisions Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.
Monocotyledons in seven series.
The seven series of Monocotyledons represent a sequence beginning with the most complicated epigynous orders, such as Orchideae and Scitamineae, and passing through the petaloid hypogynous orders (series Coronarieae) of which Liliaceae is the representative to Juncaceae and the palms (series Calycinae) where the perianth Ioses its petaloid character and thence to the Aroids, screw-pines and albuminous Dicotyledons the cotyledons act as the absorbents of the reserve-food of the seed and are commonly brought above ground (epigeal), either withdrawn from the seed-coat or carrying it upon them, and then they serve as the first green organs of the plant.
In albuminous Monocotyledons the cotyledon itself, probably in consequence of its terminal position, is commonly the agent by which the embryo is thrust out of the seed, and it may function solely as a feeder, its extremity developing as a sucker through which the endosperm is absorbed, or it may become the first green organ, the terminal sucker dropping off with the seed-coat when the endosperm is exhausted.
Sometimes, as usually in monocotyledons, the calyx and corolla are similar; in such cases the term perianth, or perigone, is applied.
In Monocotyledons it is usual for the staminal whorl to be double, it rarely having more than two rows, whilst amongst dicotyledons there are often very numerous rows of stamens.
The symmetry which is most commonly met with is trimerous and pentamerous - the former occurring generally among monocotyledons, the latter among dicotyledons.
In Monocotyledons, as in grasses, there is often only one, while in Dicotyledons they number from three upwards; when numerous, the pores are either scattered irregularly, or in a regular order, frequently forming a circle round the equatorial surface.
The long, parallel-veined leaves of the Cordaiteae, which were commonly referred to Monocotyledons before their structure or connexion with other parts of the plant was known, have been shown by Renault to have essentially the same anatomy as a single leaflet of a Cycad such as Zamia.
Whatever doubt may be left as to the exact botanical position of these early Lower Cretaceous Angiosperms, it is clear that both Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are represented by several types of leaves, and that the flora extended over wide areas in North America and Greenland, and is found again at a few points in Europe.
Of the species are Dicotyledons, and that no Monocotyledons have been found.
The great rarity of Monocotyledons is a common characteristic of fossil floras known only, as this one is, from leaves principally belonging to deciduous trees.
According to this catalogue, the true Laramie flora includes about 250 species, more than half of which are deciduous forest trees, herbaceous Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons and Cryptogams, all being but poorly represented.
The Cenomanian strata have yielded already 177 species, the different groups being represented in these proportions: Cryptogams, 37, 30 of which are Ferns; Cycads, 8; Conifers, 27; Monocotyledons, 8; Apetalous Dicotyledons, 31; other Dicotyledons, 66.
The Senonian strata have yielded 118 species, 21 of which are Cryptogams, 1 i Conifers, 5 Monocotyledons, 75 Dicotyledons.
Monocotyledons are rare, the only ones of much interest being some fragments of pandanaceous leaves.
Diem Lanzaeanum, which last has a very wide toc range in time; Monocotyledons, by a Sabal and a feather-palm, as well as by the two aquatic genera above mentioned; Gymnosperms, by the extinct araucarian genus Doliostrobus, by rare pine-cones, and by Athrotaxis.
Monocotyledons form one-sixth of the known Miocene flora, 25 of them being grasses and 39 sedges; but most of these need further study, and are very insufficiently characterized.
The periblem, one cell thick at the apex, produces the cortex, to which the piliferous layer belongs in Monocotyledons; and the plerome, which is nearly always sharply separated from the periblem, gives rise to the vascular cylinder.
TROPICAL REGI0N.This is characterized by the presence of gigantic Monocotyledons, palms, Musaceae and bamboos, and of evergreen polypetalous trees and figs.
The remains of palms (Sabctl and Nipa) as well as of other large-leaved Monocotyledons are preserved.
AROIDEAE (Arum family), a large and wide-spread botanical order of Monocotyledons containing about 1000 species in 105 genera.
The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
Many monocotyledons do well in peat, even if they do not absolutely require it.
In some Monocotyledons, ordinarily in Chlorophytum, and exceptionally in Phalaenopsis and others, new plants arise on the flower stems.
In internal structure grass-culms, save in being hollow, conform to that usual in monocotyledons; the vascular bundles run parallel in the internodes, but a horizontal interlacement occurs at the nodes.
The pale is now generally considered to represent the single bracteole, characteristic of Monocotyledons, the binerved structure being the result of the pressure of the axis of the spikelet during the development of the pale, as in Iris and others.
IiXtr t ta, a water-plant mentioned by Dioscorides), in botany, a natural order of monocotyledons belonging to the series Helobieae, and represented in Britain by the water plantain, Alisma Plantago, the arrow-head, Sagittaria, the star-fruit, Damasonium, and flowering rush, Butomus (from the Gr.
Among the few Monocotyledons are leaves and fruits of palms, and traces of grasses and sedges.
Most of the other Monocotyledons call for little remark, though among them is an Iris, a Bromelia and a ginger.
Of the 4100 known plants - of which about three-fourths are endemic - composing the Madagascar flora, there are 3492 Dicotyledons, 248 Monocotyledons and 360 Acotyledons.
HYDROCHARIDEAE, in botany, a natural order of Monocotyledons, belonging to the series Helobieae.
SiK-rvov, a net, and the termination -rye pis, produced), a botanical name proposed by John Lindley for a class including certain families of Monocotyledons which have net-veined leaves.
It was the English botanist Robert Brown who first recognized this important distinguishing feature in conifers and cycads in 1825; he established the gymnospermy of these seed-bearing classes as distinct from the angiospermy of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons.
(Sedge family), Juncaceae (Rush family), and some other monocotyledons with inconspicuous flowers.
BROMELIACEAE, in botany, a natural order of Monocotyledons, confined to tropical and sub-tropical America.
IRIDACEAE (the iris family), in botany, a natural order of flowering plants belonging to the series Liliiflorae of the class Monocotyledons, containing about Boo species in 57 genera, and widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions.
It is based upon the fact that the histological differentiation of the epidermis of their root is that generally characteristic of Monocotyledons, whilst they have two cotyledons - the old view of the epiblast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being adopted.
In the smaller group, the Monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and scattered through the ground tissue.