It is a monobasic acid, and a very powerful oxidizing agent (M.
It is a monobasic acid forming salts which are permanent in air, but which are gradually oxidized in aqueous solution.
In addition to this, the further regularity has been observed that when the powerful monobasic acids are neutralized by the powerful monacid bases, the heat of neutralization is in all cases the same.
The following table gives the heats of neutralization of the commoner strong monobasic acids with soda: - Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydriodic acid Nitric acid Chloric acid Bromic acid Within the error of experiment these numbers are identical.
When heated with monobasic saturated acids and zinc chloride it yields acridines.
COOH, the first member of the series of aliphatic monobasic acids of the general formula C.H 2, ,O 2.
Those derived from monobasic acids, obtained by the action of acid chlorides or anhydrides on urea, decompose on heating and do not form salts.
It behaves as a monobasic acid and forms unstable salts.
It is monobasic and yields salts which only crystallize with great difficulty; when liberated, from these salts by a mineral acid it forms a syrupy nonvolatile mass.
An acid is said to be monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, &c., according to the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms; thus HNO 3 is monobasic, sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 dibasic, phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 tribasic.
Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
When oxidized this aldohexose is first converted into the monobasic galactonic acid, and then into dibasic mucic acid; the latter is optically inactive, so that its configuration must be one of those given in the sixth and seventh columns of the table.
This view, which was specially supported by Gay-Lussac and Leopold Gmelin and accepted by Berzelius, necessitated that all acids were monobasic. The untenability of this theory was proved by Thomas Graham's investigation of the phosphoric acids; for he then showed that the ortho- (ordinary), pyroand metaphosphoric acids contained respectively 3, 2 and I molecules of " basic water " (which were replaceable by metallic oxides) and one molecule of phosphoric oxide, P2 05.
Aliphatic monobasic acids are further divided according to the nature of the parent hydrocarbon.