Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
The Mongolians of the northern half of Asia are almost entirely nomadic, hunters and shepherds or herdsmen.
Wallace notes the resemblance which he traced between the Malays and the Mongolians, and others have recorded similar observations as to the physical appearance of the two races.
Castren considers them as a mixture of Ugrians with Mongolians, and Zograf as brachycephalic Mongolians.
From the 10th to the 13th century (960-1272) the city, whose real name was then Ling-nan, was the capital of southern China and the seat of the Sung dynasty, which was dethroned by the Mongolians shortly before Marco Polo's visit.
But a new element, the Mongolians of Central Asia, now bursts in on the scene.
The former is worshipped by the Mongolians as Okkin Tengri, " the Virgin Goddess "; but in Tibet and China the role of the divine virgin is filled by Kwan Yin, a personification of Avalokitesvara as the heavenly word, who is often represented with a child in her arms. Srong Tsan Gampo has also become a saint, being looked upon as an incarnation of Avalokitesvara; and the description in the ecclesiastical historians of the measures he took for the welfare of his subjects do great credit to their ideal of the perfect Buddhist king.