About 127 B.C., perished in a battle against the Tochari, a Mongolian tribe, which had invaded the east of Iran (Justin xli.
To-day, however, fuller data are available than when Wallace wrote, and the more generally accepted theory is that the Malayan race is distinct, and came from the south, until it was stayed by the Mongolian races living on the mainland of southern Asia.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
His great successor, Kublai Khan (1280-1294), rebuilt the town, which he called Yenking, and which became known in Chinese as Ta-tu, or "great court," and in Mongolian as Khanbalik (Cambaluc), or "city of the khan."
By far the largest area is occupied by the Mongolian group. These have yellow-brown skins, black eyes and hair, flat noses and oblique eyes.
The distribution of the Mongolian group in Asia offers no particular difficulty.
The extension of modified forms of the Mongolian type over the whole American continent may be mentioned as a remarkable circumstance connected with this branch of the human race.
The predatory habits of the Turkish, Mongolian and Manchu population of northern Asia, and their irruptions into other parts of the continent and into Europe, have produced very remarkable results in the history of the world.
The Chinese branch of the Mongolian family are a thoroughly settled people of agriculturists and traders.
It is known that to the TibetoChinese modifications of the pure Mongolian type all the eastern Burmese tribes - Chins, Kachins, Shans, &c. - belong (as indeed do the Burmese themselves), and that a cognate race occupies the Himalaya to the eastern limits of Kashmir.
Mongolian settlements have lately been found very much farther extended into the border countries of north-west India than has been hitherto recognized.
The Mingals, who, conjointly with the Brahuis, occupy the hills south of Kalat to the limits of the Rajput province of Las Bela, claim Mongolian descent, and traces of a Mongolian colony have been found in Makran.
The Christians made efforts to creep back to their former possessions and churches were rebuilt in Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth; but another devastation was the result of the ferocious inroads of the Mongolian Timur (Tamerlane) in 1400.
We distinguish between a Siberian, Mongolian, Mediterranean and European province, none of which can be well defined.
Less than a century later it became the prize of Jenghiz Khan, who, having his main interests centred on the Mongolian steppes, declined to move his court southwards.
Considerable progress has been made in the classification of the various races which occupy the continent to the west of the great Mongolian region.
The Kalmucks are a Buddhist and Mongolian people who originated in a confederacy of tribes dwelling in Dzungaria, migrated to Siberia, and settled on the Lower Volga.
In prehistoric times they were spread over the whole of India, but were driven to the centre and south of the peninsula by the third stratum of Aryans, and perhaps also by invasions of so-called Mongolian races from the north-west.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
One of the most noticeable of the birds is the Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolicd), which is found in a wild state both in Manchuria and in the desert of Mongolia.
His reign, however, was brief, for his subjects rose and murdered him, with all his sons except the youngest, Fancha, who, like the infant Haitu in Mongolian history, was miraculously saved.
With even greater success than his Mongolian counterpart, Nurhachu drew tribe after tribe under his sway, and after numerous wars with Korea and Mongolia he established his rule over the whole of Manchuria.
The cranial measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian races.
Though clad, armed and organized in European fashion, the soldiers retained in a marked degree the traditions of their Mongolian forerunners, their transport wagons were in type the survival of ages of experience, and their care for their animals equally the result of hereditary habit.
The race is probably the result of a fusion of the Malay aborigines of Indo-China with the Aryan and Mongolian invaders of the country.
Another great lake, Lake Kossogol, on the Mongolian frontier, is 120 m.
3 From this northern limit to the Aral-Caspian and Mongolian steppes stretches all over Siberia the forest region; the forests are, however, very unequally distributed, covering from 50 to 99% of the area in different districts.
Admixture of Mongolian species, such as Canis corsac, Felis manul, Spermophilus dauricus, the jerboa (Dipus jaculus), two hamsters (Cricetus songarus and C. furunculus), three new voles (Arvicolae), the Tolai hare, Ogotona hare (Lagomys ogotona), Aegocerus argali, Antilope gutturosa and Equus hemionus (jighitai).
The principal centre for the remainder (textiles and petroleum), conveyed by land, is Kiakhta on the Mongolian frontier.
The Great, king of Parthia (c. 120-88 B.C.), saved the kingdom from the Mongolian Sacae (Tochari), who had occupied Bactria and eastern Iran, and is said to have extended the limits of the empire (Justin 42, 2, where he is afterwards confused with Mithradates III.).
Along the south-western border of this division of Mongolia a gigantic border-ridge, the Ektagh (or Mongolian) Altai, runs in an E.S.E.
But in the north a new race appeared, Mongolian tribes, called Seythians by the Greeks, amongst which the Tochari, identical with the Yue-chi of the Chinese, were the most important.
The Arab geographers considered it impregnable, and from its steep approaches and well-arranged defences it was able to offer a protracted resistance to the Mongolian conqueror Hulagu and to the armies of Timur.
The fear of further Mongolian invasion led to the imposition of fresh taxes in both Egypt and Syria, including one of 33% Ofl rents, which occasioned many complaints.
China and Japan have hitherto been regarded as the chief producers of tea, and the reputed large domestic consumption of those Mongolian peoples has led to assumptions of vast internal productions.
The Mongolian goat has a very soft silk underwool, and after the long top hair is removed it is dressed and imported and erroneously named mouflon.
Mongolian lambs, size 24 X15 in., are of a short wavy loose curl, creamy white colour, and are usually exported from China dressed, the majority being ready-made into cross-shaped coats or linings.
Mongolian Lambs.-See Lambs, above.
Many Mongolian goats with the long hairs pulled out are sold as mouflon.
A lama, a Mongolian Buriat by birth and a Russian subject, whose Russianized name was Dorjiev, had come to Lhasa about 1880.
Chinese character which had formerly the sound of po); in Mongolian, Ti%bet, Tobot; in Arabic, Tubbet; Istakhri (c. 590), Tobbat; Rabbi Benjamin (1165), Thibet; J.
Schmidt published his Grammatik der tibetischen Sprache in 1839 and his Tibetisch-deutsches Worterbuch in 1841, but neither of these works justified the great pretensions of the author, whose access to Mongolian sources had enabled him to enrich the results of his labours with a certain amount of information unknown to his predecessors.