Side of Mongolia, and, since 1904-5, it has skirted the N.
The high tableland of Tibet and Pamir to the lower plateaus of Mongolia, and thence N.E.
The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
-A Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia (2 vols., London, 1870); S.
Asia is divided laterally along the parallel of 40° north by a depression which, beginning on the east of the desert of Gobi, extends westwards through Mongolia to Chinese Turkestan.
Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.
Its eastern part is nearly conterminous with south Mongolia, its western forms Chinese or eastern Turkestan.
The more northern parts of Mongolia are between 4000 and 6000 ft., and no portion of the route across the desert between the Chinese frontier and Kiakhta is below 3000 ft.
In Mongolia the population is essentially nomadic, its wealth consisting in herds of horned cattle, sheep, horses and camels.
The Turki tribes, occupying western Mongolia, are among the least civilized of human beings, and it is chiefly to their extreme barbarity and cruelty that our ignorance of central Asia is due.
While at the close of the 19th century western Asia (exclusive of Arabia) may be said to have been freed from all geographical perplexity, China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia still include enormous areas of which geographical knowledge is in a primitive stage of nebulous uncertainty.
The position of Sachu (or Saitu) in Mongolia may be taken as an obligatory point in modern map construction.
Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.
North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.
The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.
In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.
Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.
And between 116° and 134° E., and is wedged in between China and Mongolia on the west and north-west, and Korea and the Russian territory on the Amur on the east and north.
By Mongolia, and on the E.
With even greater success than his Mongolian counterpart, Nurhachu drew tribe after tribe under his sway, and after numerous wars with Korea and Mongolia he established his rule over the whole of Manchuria.
Mongolia, not far apart in 101° E.
As far as their confluence near Kiakhta, on the frontier of Mongolia and Siberia, at the eastern extremity of the Sayan Mountains.
Both rise very gently above it, but have steep slopes towards the lower terrace, which is occupied by the Nerchinsk steppes in Transbaikalia and by the great desert of Gobi in Mongolia (2000 to 2500,ft.
De Koulomzine, Le Trans-siberien (Paris, 1904); Bishop of Norwich, My Life in Mongolia and Siberia (London, 1903); S.
MONGOLIA, a vast territory belonging to the Chinese empire, the administrative limits of which cannot be determined with precision.
The boundary line which separates Mongolia from Manchuria runs past Dalai-nor and Lake Buir, crossing the Great Khingan in 47° 30' N., towards Tsit g ihar in Manchuria; then, crossing the Nonni river, it strikes the Sungari at Khulanchen, where it turns westwards up this river, reaching the Shara-muren river in 123° 30' E.
Thence it turns north-west, following the Great Wall for over 300 m.; it then crosses the plateau so as to separate Mongolia from the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang (Hari-su-sin-tsiang, which includes the Nan-shan highlands and eastern Turkestan), and from Dzungaria, reaching the Chinese or Ektagh Altai in 46° 30' N., 92° 50' E.
Geographically, Mongolia may thus be said to occupy both terraces of the great plateau of east Asia, which stretches in the south of Siberia, between the Sailughem range of the Great Altai and the Great Khingan - with the exception of the Dzungarian depression.
Broadly speaking, Mongolia may be divided naturally into three parts: (1) north-western Mongolia, which occupies the high terrace of the plateau; (2) the Gobi, in its wide sense, covering the lower terrace of the plateau, together with a slightly more elevated and better-watered zone along the western slope of the Great Khingan and its south-western continuation; and (3) southeastern Mongolia, on the eastern slope of the Khingan.
North-western Mongolia was formerly represented as a region intersected by lofty mountain chains.
At any rate, throughout the whole of north-west Mongolia, which covers an area of nearly 370,000 sq.
Along the south-western border of this division of Mongolia a gigantic border-ridge, the Ektagh (or Mongolian) Altai, runs in an E.S.E.
To E.S.E., border another slightly higher terrace of the same great plateau of north-west Mongolia, upon which Lake Kossogol lies, at an altitude of 5320 ft.
The conception of north-west Mongolia as a.
- North-western Mongolia is well watered, and has in its western part a group of lakes which possess no outlet to the ocean, being in reality the rapidly desiccating remains of what were formerly much larger basins.
A very large portion of north-west Mongolia constitutes a high plain, 3000 to 4200 ft.
Owing to its high altitude, north-western Mongolia is very cold, and the severity of the winter is intensified by the prevalence of cold but dry north-western winds.
The chief towns of north-west Mongolia are Urga, Ulyasutai, Kobdo and Ulankom.
Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.
This portion of Mongolia is also much better watered, namely, by the Khatsyr, the Lao-ho and the Shara-muren, all flowing from the Khingan Mountains eastwards, and the last making the frontier between Mongolia and the Chinese province of Chihli.
The population of the whole of Mongolia is estimated at about 5,000,000.
The Mongols proper, with the exception of those who inhabit north-west Mongolia, may be divided into northern and southern (more properly north-western and southeastern) Mongols.
The trade is chiefly concentrated at Urga, Ulyasutai and Kobdo in north-west Mongolia; Kalgan, Kuku-khoto, Kuku-erghi, Dolon-nur and Biru-khoto in southern and south-eastern Mongolia; and at Kerulen in the north-east.
Mongolia is now administered by a Lifan Yuen or superin tendency with headquarters at Peking.
Excluding the territory to which the name of Mongolia is geographically applied, but which is included in the provinces of Shansi and Chihli, Mongolia is divided into inner and outer divisions.
Inner Mongolia, lying between the desert of Gobi, China proper and Manchuria, is divided into 24 aimaks.
Outer Mongolia, the remainder of the territory, has 4 aimaks, three of which are under hereditary khans.
- The following works in Russian are the most important: Prjevalsky, Mongolia and the Land of the Tanguts (1875), and his Third and Fourth Journey (1883 and 1888); G.
Pozdneeff, Towns of North Mongolia (1880); Mongolia and the Mongols (1896 and 1899); and the article " Mongolia " in Russian Encycl.