For general information and references to the literature of the subject, see Otto ZOckler, Askese and Monchtum (1897), ii.
See also Otto Zockler, Askese and Monchtum, ii.
Zoekler, Askese and Monchtum (1897), 355-371; and E.
(1714); Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1907), i., § i i; Abbe Marin, Les Moines de Constantinople (1897); Karl Holl, Enthusiasmus and Bussgewalt beim griechischen Monchtum (1898); Otto Zockler, Askese and Monchtum, pp. 28 5-3 0 9 (1897).
Iii.), in articles "Monchtum," "Orientalische Kirche," and "Athosberg," where copious references will be found.
But now the view of the critico-historical school of Protestant thought, of which Dr Adolf Harnack is so representative a spokesman, is that the preservation of spiritual religion in Catholic Christianity, both Eastern and Western, has been mainly, if not wholly, due to monasticism (see Harnack's early tractate Das Monchtum, translated under the title Monasticism, by E.
Otto Zockler's Askese and Monchtum (1897), also.
The article MOnchtum in Herzog-Hauck Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed.), and in Wetzer and Welte Kirchenlexicon (2nd ed.) go over the same general ground as the present article, in the earlier portion entering into greater detail as to facts, but in the later dealing much more summarily.
Zockler's Askese and Monchtum (1897), pp. 32-135.
Schiwietz, Das morgenlandische Monchtum, 1904, pt.
For the literature see Otto Zockler, Askese and Monchtum (1897), pp. 347, 354 (E.