The molecule of every compound must obviously contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are as follows: I.
Its vapour density has been determined at 2000°, and corresponds to a monatomic molecule.
Its ratio of specific heats has very nearly the ideal value 1 666, appropriate to a monatomic molecule.
The cadmium molecule, as shown by determinations of the density of its vapour, is monatomic. The metal unites with the majority of the heavy metals to form alloys; some of these, the so-called fusible alloys, find a useful application from the fact that they possess a low melting-point.
It is found that mercury vapour, helium, argon and its associates (neon, krypton, &c.) have the value 1.67; hence we conclude that these gases exist as monatomic molecules.
The abnormal specific heats of the halogen elements may be due to a loosening of the atoms, a preliminary to the dissociation into monatomic molecules which occurs at high temperatures.
In the more complex gases the specific heat varies considerably with temperature; only in the case of monatomic gases does it remain constant.
It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
If two monatomic molecules, having energy of translation only, equivalent to 3 degrees of freedom, combined to form a diatomic molecule with 5 degrees of freedom, the energy lost would.
In the light of these results it is of extreme significance that the four gases for which n = o are all believed to be monatomic: the molecules of these gases consist of single atoms. Moreover, these four are the only monatomic gases for which the value of y is known, so that the only atoms of which the shape can be determined are found to be spherical.
The same value had previously been found for mercury vapour by Kundt and Warburg, and had been regarded as confirmatory of the monatomic character attributed on chemical grounds to the mercury molecule.
In the property of carbon to combine with four different monatomic elements at once, whereas nitrogen can only hold three (or in some cases five), oxygen two (in some cases four), hydrogen one.
This Appears To Be Actually The Case For Monatomic Gases Such As Mercury Vapour (Kundt And Warburg, 1876), Argon And Helium (Ramsay, 1896).
The Ideal Atomic Heat Is The Thermal Capacity Of A Gramme Atom In The Ideal State Of Monatomic Gas At Constant Volume.
Alcohols are classified on two distinct principles, one depending upon the number of hydroxyl groups present, the other on the nature of the remaining groups attached to the carbon atom which carries the hydroxyl group. Monatomic or monohydric alcohols contain only one hydroxyl group; diatomic, two, known as glycols; triatomic, three, known as glycerols; and so on.
The following monatomic alcohols receive special treatment under their own headings: - Alcohol (Ethyl), Allyl Alcohol, Amyl Alcohols, Benzyl Alcohol, Butyl Acohols, Methyl Alcohol, and Propyl Alcohols.