It may be said broadly, therefore, that in .episcopacy the government is monarchical; in congregationalism, democratic; and in Presbyterianism, aristocratic or representative.
But the problem of fitting these into the history of Israel still remains The assumption that the earlier sources for the pre-monarchical history, as incorporated by late compilers, are necessarily trustworthy confuses the inquiry (on Gen.
Formerly a friend and disciple of Mazzini, with whom he had broken on the question of the monarchical form of government which Crispi believed indispensable to the unification of Italy, he had afterwards been one of Garibaldis most efficient coadjutors and an active member of the party of action.
(9th January Deaths t~ 1878) stirred national feeling to an unprecedented Victor depth, and placed the continuity of monarchical in&nmaauel stitutions in Italy upon trial before Europe.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
Constitutional parties by intimacy with strong monarchical states such as Germany and Austria.
Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
Unlike the ordinary Russian principalities, it had a republican rather than a monarchical form of government.
Dent, and in creating for themselves an uncontrolled 1462- monarchical authority.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
The most suggestive study of the pre-monarchical narratives is that of E.
The fall of the monarchy involved a reversion to a pre-monarchical state.
Lvov, he founded the Octobrist party, in the hope that the Tsar's Government would recognize the necessity of great reforms and work with the moderate Liberals of the Zemstvos while safeguarding the monarchical principle.
The few cases where the government is not monarchical, as Arabia, seem to represent the persistence of every ancient conditions.
The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
The monarchical principle was shaken to its foundations by the English revolution of 1688; it was shattered by the French revolution of 1789; and though it survives as a political force, more or less strongly, in most European countries, "monarchists," in the strict sense of the word, are everywhere a small and dwindling minority.
(2500 B.C. ?) the scattered communities of the centre of the island coalesced into a strong monarchical state, whose capital was at Cnossus.
It is a struggle between the king and the haute tour: it is a struggle between the aristocratic feudalism of the Franks and the monarchical feudalism of the Normans.
And it came to pass that the Kaiser, who deemed himself the champion of monarchical principle in Europe, should assist him and his retinue to reach Russia after the overthrow of the Tsar.
The reform which the council had set itself to effect was a subject the fathers could not broach without stirring up dissension: some stood out obstinately for preserving the status quo, while others contemplated nothing less than the transformation of the monarchical administration of the church into a parliamentary democracy, the subordination of the sovereign pontiff, and the annihilation of the Sacred College.
The monarchical government introduced by Deiphontes gave way to an oligarchy, and the oligarchy degenerated into a despotism.
To make an attempt to reconcile the church with the republic. He invited the officers of the Mediterranean squadron to lunch at Algiers, and, practically renouncing his monarchical sympathies, to which he clung as long as the comte de Chambord was alive, expressed his support of the republic, and emphasized it by having the Marseillaise played by a band of his Peres Blanes.
He made very evident the monarchical character of the Prussian state, and gave to the office of emperor a prominence greater than it had hitherto had.
There was below the surface much discontent and subdued criticism of the exaggeration of the monarchical power, which the Germans called Byzantinismus; but after all the nation seemed to welcome the government of the emperor, as it did that of Bismarck.
* The Illuminati sought to substitute republican for monarchical institutions.