* The Illuminati sought to substitute republican for monarchical institutions.
It may be said broadly, therefore, that in .episcopacy the government is monarchical; in congregationalism, democratic; and in Presbyterianism, aristocratic or representative.
But the problem of fitting these into the history of Israel still remains The assumption that the earlier sources for the pre-monarchical history, as incorporated by late compilers, are necessarily trustworthy confuses the inquiry (on Gen.
He made very evident the monarchical character of the Prussian state, and gave to the office of emperor a prominence greater than it had hitherto had.
There was below the surface much discontent and subdued criticism of the exaggeration of the monarchical power, which the Germans called Byzantinismus; but after all the nation seemed to welcome the government of the emperor, as it did that of Bismarck.
Formerly a friend and disciple of Mazzini, with whom he had broken on the question of the monarchical form of government which Crispi believed indispensable to the unification of Italy, he had afterwards been one of Garibaldis most efficient coadjutors and an active member of the party of action.
(9th January Deaths t~ 1878) stirred national feeling to an unprecedented Victor depth, and placed the continuity of monarchical in&nmaauel stitutions in Italy upon trial before Europe.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
Constitutional parties by intimacy with strong monarchical states such as Germany and Austria.
Unlike the ordinary Russian principalities, it had a republican rather than a monarchical form of government.
Dent, and in creating for themselves an uncontrolled 1462- monarchical authority.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
The most suggestive study of the pre-monarchical narratives is that of E.
The fall of the monarchy involved a reversion to a pre-monarchical state.
Lvov, he founded the Octobrist party, in the hope that the Tsar's Government would recognize the necessity of great reforms and work with the moderate Liberals of the Zemstvos while safeguarding the monarchical principle.
The few cases where the government is not monarchical, as Arabia, seem to represent the persistence of every ancient conditions.
The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
The monarchical principle was shaken to its foundations by the English revolution of 1688; it was shattered by the French revolution of 1789; and though it survives as a political force, more or less strongly, in most European countries, "monarchists," in the strict sense of the word, are everywhere a small and dwindling minority.
(2500 B.C. ?) the scattered communities of the centre of the island coalesced into a strong monarchical state, whose capital was at Cnossus.
It is a struggle between the king and the haute tour: it is a struggle between the aristocratic feudalism of the Franks and the monarchical feudalism of the Normans.
And it came to pass that the Kaiser, who deemed himself the champion of monarchical principle in Europe, should assist him and his retinue to reach Russia after the overthrow of the Tsar.
The monarchical government introduced by Deiphontes gave way to an oligarchy, and the oligarchy degenerated into a despotism.
To make an attempt to reconcile the church with the republic. He invited the officers of the Mediterranean squadron to lunch at Algiers, and, practically renouncing his monarchical sympathies, to which he clung as long as the comte de Chambord was alive, expressed his support of the republic, and emphasized it by having the Marseillaise played by a band of his Peres Blanes.
The experiment of republican government had proved so discreditable, and had so wearied the country of cabals, that men hitherto known for their sympathy with democratic principles became more monarchical than the regent himself; and under this influence a movement to give the regency into the hands of the princess Donna Januaria, now in her 18th year, was set on foot.
James, the Lord's brother, who, partly because of his relationship to Christ, stood supreme in the church at Jerusalem, as also Timothy and Titus, who acted as temporary delegates of St Paul at Ephesus and in Crete, are justly considered to have been forerunners of the monarchical episcopate.
At all events the rights of the monarchical bishop are strongly asserted in the Ignatian epistles (about A.D.
Even when introduced, the monarchical episcopate was not thought necessary for the ordination of other bishops or presbyters.
The monarchical episcopate is rejected.
When the king symbolizes both the god and the extent of his kingdom, ceremonies which could appear commonplace often acquire a new significance, any discussion of which belongs to the intricacies of the history of religion and pre-monarchical society.
Kings, at all events, undertook priestly duties, and not until after the fall of Jerusalem does the history allow that usurpation of monarchical rights upon which the prophet Ezekiel encroaches.
In 1864, however, he made at the chamber a monarchical profession of faith, in the famous phrase afterwards repeated in his letter to Mazzini: "The monarchy unites us; the republic would divide us."
12); nevertheless, an assembly is called, and the people are warned of the drawbacks of monarchical institutions (viii.
The Spaniards, who were too thoroughly monarchical to blame the king, held his favourite responsible for the misfortunes of the country.
A subsidy treaty with the sea powers (April 1 9, 1 794) filled his coffers; but the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic (April 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle and the new political creed of the Revolution.
In short, if we recall the characteristics of the Church in the Weft from the times of Constantine to those of Theodoric - its reliance upon the civil power for favours and protection, combined with its assumption of a natural superiority over the civil power and its innate tendency to monarchical unity - it becomes clear that Gregory VII.
As early as the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), however, the question of the relations of Spain and her colonies had been brought up and the suggestion made of concerted intervention, to put an end to a state of things scandalous in itself and dangerous, if only by force of example, to the monarchical principle.
Diocesan Episcopacy, represents the principle of official rule in a monarchical form: Pre g byterianism stands for the rule of an official aristocracy, exercising collective control through an ascending series of ecclesiastical courts.
There seems, however, no parallel to such a use of " angel," and it is doubtful whether the monarchical government of churches was fully developed when the Apocalypse was written.
He was bitterly disappointed at the triumph of the monarchical principle after the revolution of July 1830, in which he had taken part.
Rumours of the war of extermination conducted against their kinsmen, the wild Prussians, by the Knights, first woke the Lithuanians to a sense of their own danger, and induced them to abandon their loose communal system in favour of a monarchical form of government, which concentrated the whole power of the state in a single hand.
- The best general history of Poland is still Jozef Szujski's monumental History of Poland according to the latest investigations (4 vols., Pol., Lemberg, 1865-1866), a work which has all the authority of careful criticism and easy scholarship. It adopts, throughout, the conservative-monarchical standpoint.
But he was honourable and consistent in his adherence to the monarchical principle throughout his life.
It was convenient, too, to profess Lutheran sympathies, for Lutheranism was now an established, monarchical and comparatively respectable religion, very different from the Calvinism against which monarchs directed the Counter-reformation from political motives.
These circumstances explain the violence of his anti-monarchical sentiment.
Elected deputy for his native town of Forli in 1880, he helped the royal visit to Romagna, hitherto regarded as a hot-bed of anti-monarchical views.
Transferred to the central point of the administration, he had ample opportunity of regarding with other eyes the situation of the kingdom, and in consequence of his remonstrances he fell rapidly in the favour of Charles Both in 1710 and 1713 Horn was in favour of summoning the estates, but when in 1714 the diet adopted an anti-monarchical attitude, he gravely warned and ultimately dissolved it.
On the other hand the conditions of the migration period were doubtless favourable to monarchical government, and from this time onwards kingship appears to have been universal, except among the Old Saxons and in Iceland.
This, in fact, was an inevitable sequel to the attempt to overthrow the monarchical constitution of the Church.
In France the Conservative Monarchical party had just shown its inability to preserve the Crown, whilst the Republic had anchored itself firmly by denouncing the clergy as its enemy.
Instructions were given to the French Catholics to break with monarchical principles, and both externally and internally to cleave to the Republic as representing the best form of constitutional government.
The case was characteristic of the whole Catholic monarchical party, which, owing to the pope's interference in French politics, became disintegrated and dissolved, a fate that was all the more painful seeing that the Ralliement failed to influence the course of events.
This, however, was a mere pretext, it was for his anti-monarchical sentiments that he was really prosecuted.
These containedelaborateprovisions for supervising the universities and muzzling the press, laying down that no constitution inconsistent with the monarchical principle should be granted, and setting up a central commission at Mainz to inquire into the machinations of the great revolutionary secret society which existed only in the imagination of the authorities.
The remainder of the Progressives, the Fortsc/zrittspartei, maintained their protest against the military and monarchical elements in the state; they voted against the constitution in 1867 on the ground that it did not provide sufficient guarantees for popular liberty, and in 1871 against the treaty with Bavaria because it left too much independence to that state.
It was not confined to any one departmeiit of life, but included Protection as against Free Trade, State Socialism as against individualism, the defence of religion as against a separation of Church and State, increased stress laid on the monarchical character of the state, continued increase of the army, and colonial expansion.
Puttkammer, who had now become minister of the interior, defended the practice, and a royal edict of 4th January 1882 affirmed the monarchical character of the Prussian constitution, the right of the king personally to direct the policy of the state, and required those officials who held appointments of a political nature to defend the policy of the government, even at elections.
The Spanish government claimed the islands, and Bismarck, in order to avoid a struggle which would have been very disastrous to monarchical government in Spain, suggested that the pope should he asked to mediate.