3 Gauhar Shad was the wife of Shah Rukh (1404-1447), and was murdered by that monarch's successor Abu Said, August I, 1457.
By Pobe- donostsev (q.v.), who was one of his teachers, and later his most trusted adviser, and its influence can be traced in all the more important acts of the government during that monarch's reign.
The same zeal for union induced him, during the residence of Peter the Great in France, and at that monarch's request, to draw up a plan for uniting the Greek and Roman churches.
It has been assumed that Israel had withdrawn from the great coalition, that Jehu sent tribute to Shalmaneser to obtain that monarch's recognition, and that Hazael consequently seized the first opportunity to retaliate.
The chief adviser of Theodoric, the East Gothic king in Italy, he accepted with ardour that monarch's great scheme, if indeed, he did not himself originally suggest it, of welding Roman and Goth together into one harmonious state which should preserve the social refinement and the intellectual culture of the Latin-speaking races without losing the hardy virtues of their Teutonic conquerors.
Replying, Mr Adams admitted it, closing with the outspoken sentiment: " I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country " - a phrase which must have jarred upon the monarch's sensibilities.
The men, however, refused to march without seeing their sultan, and the singular expedient was resorted to of propping up the dead monarch's body in a dark room and concealing behind it an attendant who raised the hands and moved the head of the corpse as the troops marched past.
In the Danish islands and was in close attendance upon him till the monarch's death in 1660.
They lived, practically, as Kaffir chiefs, trading with Chaka and gathering round them many refugees from that monarch's tyranny.
In 1856 he fought for Umbulazi against Cetywayo, but was high in that monarch's favour at the time of his coronation in 1873.
That sovereign was determined to dominate the young duke of Savoy, who from the first resented the monarch's insolent bearing.
He recites how he had heard of the monarch's Christian profession, diligence in good works and piety, by manifold narrators and common report, but also more particularly from his (the pope's) physician and confidant (medicus et familiaris noster), Master Philip, who had received information from honourable persons of the monarch's kingdom, with whom he had intercourse in those (Eastern) parts.
Let it be observed that the "honourable persons of the monarch's kingdom" whom the leech Philip had met with in the East must have been the representatives of some real power, and not of a phantom.
The following year, 1532, parliament presented a petition to the king (which had been most carefully elaborated by the monarch's own advisers) containing twelve charges against the bishops, relating to their courts, fees, injudicious appointments and abusive treatment of heretics, which combined to cause an unprecedented and " marvellous disorder of the godly quiet, peace and tranquillity" of the realm.
This appeared to place the legislation of the clergy, whether old or new, entirely under the monarch's control.
Subsequently, however, (1780) he met the king again at Spa and completely won the monarch's favour by his natural amiability, intelligence and brilliant social gifts.
This he did by recovering the alienated royal demesnes in every direction, and from henceforth the annual landgilde, or rent, paid by the royal tenants, became the monarch's principal source of revenue.
The monarch's artistic sense led him not only to adorn his house with a number of works of antique art, but also to study German medieval art, which he did to good effect.
The crown of Portugal based its case against England on the cession of territory contained in a well-known treaty with the monomotapa (1629), and stated that this monarch's dominions then extended nearly to the Cape of Good Hope.
To this it may be added that the interval of four years between the divorce of Vashti and the marriage of Esther is well accounted for by the intervention of an important series of events fully occupying the monarch's thoughts, such as the invasion of Greece.
The part played by money economy was small, and it is noticeable that the revenues were collected by the monarch's servants, the farming out of taxes being completely unknown.
Of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers.
To obtain that monarch's influence in securing the return to England of Edward, son of Edmund Ironside, who was in Hungary with King Andrew I.
During that monarch's visit to Sir William's, and on one occasion accompanied the king in his walks round the grounds.