But this idea involves the further conception of Leibnitz, that of a pre-established harmony, by which the Creator has taken care to arrange the life of each monad, so that it agrees with that of all others.
For the soul, by its nature as a single monad indestructible and, therefore, immortal, death meant only the loss of the monads constituting the body and its return to the pre-existent state.
The more Spinozistic side of Leibnitz's thought - God as Monad of Monads - is a theistic postulate if hardly a theistic proof.
Each monad works out necessary results, but these flow from its own nature; and so in a sense it is free.
Reciprocal action is explained away into a " preestablished harmony " between every monad and all others.
As the individual monad, so the whole system which makes up the world is a gradual 1 G.
Each monad is an original independent being, and is determined to take this particular point in the universe, this place in the scale of beings.
Those elements which are equivalent in combining or displacing power to a single atom of hydrogen are said to be univalent or monad elements; whilst those which are equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen are termed bivalent or dyad elements; and those equivalent to three, four, five or six atoms of hydrogen triad, tetrad, pentad or hexad elements.
For example, in phosphorus pentachloride the five units of affinity possessed by the phosphorus atom are satisfied by the five monad atoms of chlorine, but in the trichloride two are disengaged, and, it may be supposed, satisfy each other.
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an odd number, and vice versa, - in other words, that the number of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot be at one time an even and at another an odd number.
Each of these OH groups is equivalent in combining or displacing power to a monad element, since it consists of an atom of dyad oxygen associated with a single atom of monad hydrogen, so that in this case the S02 group is equivalent to an atom of a dyad element.
This formula for sulphuric acid, however, merely represents such facts as that it is possible to displace an atom of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen in sulphuric acid by a single atom of chlorine, thus forming the compound SO 3 HC1; and that by the action of water on the compound SO 2 C1 2 twice the group OH, or water minus an atom of hydrogen, is introduced in place of the two monad atoms of chlorine S0 2 C1 2 +2HOH = S0 2 (OH) 2 +2HC1.
Thus, the atom of hydrogen is a monad simple radical, the atom of oxygen a dyad simple radical, whilst the group OH is a monad compound radical.
The Father in Clement's mind becomes the Absolute of the philosophers, that is to say, not the Father at all, but the Monad, a mere point devoid of all attributes.
He calls himself an Eclectic. He was in the main a Neoplatonist, drawing from that school his doctrines of the Monad and his strong tendency towards mysticism.
The soul of man is a thinking monad, and stands mid-way between the divine intelligence and the world of external things.
Leibniz, on the other hand, regarded his monad as the ultimate element of everything.
Finally, he explained the concomitance of these two series, as well as that between the perceptions of different monads, by supposing a pre-established harmony ordained by the primitive monad, God.
In his later work, La Nouvelle monadologie (1899), he maintains that each monad is a simple substance, endowed with representation, which is consciousness in form, phenomenon in matter as represented.
"The different natures and the different persons admit of union in one way alone, namely in the way of a complete agreement in respect of will; and thereby is revealed the One (or Monad) in activity in the case of those (wills) which have coalesced; in the manner described."
That in it first and in it alone this condition is realized - the individual soul must be held to be an ultimate reality reflecting in its inmost nature, like the monad of Leibniz, the complete fulness and harmony of the whole.