The superiority of the Christian faith both philosophically and ethically is set forth, the chief stress being laid on monachism, with which heathen philosophy has nothing to compare.
The third is the age of the plena spiritus libertas, the age of contemplation, the monastic age par excellence, the age of a monachism wholly directed towards ecstasy, more Oriental than Benedictine.
From this monastery went forth St Augustine and his companions on their mission to England in 59 6, carrying their monachism with them; thus England was the first country out of Italy in which Benedictine life was firmly planted.
Basing themselves on St Gregory's counsel to St Augustine, Dunstan, lEthelwold and Oswald adopted from the observance of foreign monasteries, and notably Fleury and Ghent, what was suitable for the restoration of English monachism, and so produced the Concordia Regularis, interesting as the first serious attempt to bring about uniformity of observance among the monasteries of an entire nation.
The relation of St Benedict's Rule to earlier monastic rules, and of his institute to the prevailing monachism of his day, is explained in the article Monasticism.
It is this striving after religious experience that gives to the Oriental monachism of the middle ages its peculiar character.
In Greek monachism the old Hellenic ideal of the wise man who has no wants (abraprcaa) was from the first fused with the Christian conception of unreserved self-surrender to God as the highest aim and the highest good.
In the Premonstratensian order, however, founded in I120 by Norbert of Xanten, a new conception of the whole function of monachism was introduced: the duty of the priest-monk is not only to work out his own salvation, but, by preaching and cure of souls, to labour for others.
On the relation of Neoplatonism to Monachism, compare Keim, Aus dem Urchristenthum (1878).
It was by its constant reliance on monachism that the papacy of the 12th century had attained this result, and the popes of that period were especially fortunate in having for their champion the monk St Bernard, whose admirable qualities enabled him to dominate public q P opinion.
St Basil's influence, and the greater suitability of his institute to European ideas, ensured the propagation of Basilian monachism; and Sozomen says that in Cappadocia and the neighbouring provinces there were no hermits but only cenobites.
Greek monachism underwent no development or change for four centuries, except the vicissitudes inevitable in all things human, which in monasticism assume the form of alternations of relaxation and revival.
The second half of the 8th century seems to have been a time of very general decadence; but about the year Boo Theodore, destined to be the only other creative name in Greek monachism, became abbot of the monastery of the Studium in Constantinople.
The spirit of Greek monachism, as regenerated by Theodore, may best be gathered from his Letters, Discourses and Testament.'
The picture of Studite life is the picture of normal Greek and Slavonic monachism to this day.
During the middle ages the centre of Greek monachism shifted from Constantinople to Mount Athos.
Basilian monachism spread from Greece to Italy and Russia.
Of much greater importance was the importation of Basilian monachism into Russia, for it thereby became the norm of monachism for all the Slavonic lands.
- notably to St Catherine's on Mount Sinai, and to Mount Athos - has directed much attention to contemporary Greek monachism, and the accounts of these expeditions commonly contain descriptions, more or less sympathetic and intelligent, of the present-day life of Greek monks.
On the history and spirit of Basilian Monachism, Helyot, Hist.
It was then that the analogy was first detected between the order of knighthood and the order of priesthood, and that an actual union of monachism and chivalry was effected by the establishment of the religious orders of which the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were the most eminent examples.
The monastic ideals prevalent were those of the Antonian monachism, with its hankering after the eremitical life and the practice of extreme bodily austerities.
The beginnings of Celtic monachism are obscure, but it seems to have been closely connected with the tribal system.'
However, Irish monachism emerges into the full light of history, it was in its manifestations closely akin to the Egyptian, or even to the Syrian type: there was the same love of the eremitical life, the same craving after bodily austerities of an extraordinary kind, the same individualistic piety.
Offshoots and Modifications of Benedictine Monachism: the Rise of "Orders."
Antonian monachism grew out of the purely eremitical life, and it retained many of the characteristic features inherited from its origin.
Leipoldt, Schenute von Atripe, 1903.) Egyptian monachism began to wane towards the end of the 5th century, and since the Mahommedan occupation it has ever been declining.
Here it had a great vogue, and under the influence of the innate Asiatic love of asceticism it tended to assume ale form of strange austerities, of a kind not found in Egyptian monachism in its best period.
Before the close of the 4th century monachism spread into Persia, Babylonia and Arabia.
In a special excursus of considerable length he has paid a tribute of the highest order to monachism, and in his characterization of Theodosius II.
To his mind the convent is not far removed from the church, and as a layman he is not at all inclined to accept the principles of monachism as applying to himself or to square his views of history in accordance with them.
He had thoroughly convinced himself of the abuses to which monachism lent itself.
Since that time monachism has been a power among the people and not without its influence on the course of events.