He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
In 1894 and 1895, Fischer, in a remarkable series of papers on the influence of molecular structure upon the action of the enzyme, showed that various species of yeast behave very differently towards solutions of sugars.
Let us now imagine what degree of transparency of air is admitted by its molecular constituents, viz.
In 1831, from a study of the specific heats of compounds, he formulated "Neumann's law," which expressed in modern language runs: "The molecular heat of a compound is equal to the sum of the atomic heats of its constituents."
If Descartes had contented himself with thus explaining the phenomena of gravity, heat, magnetism, light and similar forces by means of the molecular movements of his vortices, even such a theory would have excited admiration.
He rejects the attempt to explain human personality as " generated by the material molecular aggregate of its own unaided latent power," and affirms that the " universe where the human spirit is more at home than it is among these temporary collocations of matter" is " a universe capable of infinite development, of noble contemplation, and of lofty joy, long after this planet - nay the whole solar system - shall have fulfilled its present spire of destiny, and retired cold and lifeless upon its endless way " (pp. 199-200).
Numerous other papers on molecular physics, including an experimental research on magnetism, appeared in the Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Science, the Physikalische Zeitschrift, the Proceedings of the German Physical Society, the Annalen der Physik, etc. (F.
There is some doubt as to the molecular formula of fulminic acid.
In such experiments the molecular energy of a gas is converted into work only in virtue of the molecules being separated into classes in which their velocities are different, and these classes then allowed to act upon one another through the intervention of a suitable heat-engine.
The extent of the area affected and of the variation in the turgor depends upon many circumstances, but we have no doubt that in the process of modifying its own permeability by some molecular change we have the counterpart of muscular contractibility.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The boiling and freezing-point determinations of the molecular weight in solution indicate the formula S8.
This oxide exists in two forms. The aform is readily fusible and melts at 14.8° C. It corresponds to the simple molecular complex S03.
It corresponds to the molecular complex (S03)2.
Isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of time.
Deviation from this rule indicates molecular dissociation or association.
And in a coming section on robotics, we will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
The nanite-painted objects will do this job better than anything we have now because when you work with things at the molecular level, you get a lot more surface area to collect energy.
When we can build at the molecular level, we can build things I cannot imagine today.
As much as I would like to continue with speculations about molecular-sized machines, I have a larger thesis to prove.