It was the principal town of the Polish province of Pokutia, and it suffered severely during the 5th and 16th centuries from the attacks of the Moldavians and the Tatars.
The Rumanians (Moldavians) inhabit the governments of Bessarabia, Podolia, Kherson and Ekaterinoslay.
Ramnicu Sarat was the scene of battles between the Moldavians and the Walachians in 1434 and 1573, and between the Walachians and Turks in 1634.
The states beyond the Balkan now began to dread the advance of the Turks; at the instigation of the pope an allied army of 60,000 Serbs, Hungarians, Walachians and Moldavians attacked Lala Shahin.
Here Lazarus, king of Servia, had collected an army of roo,000 Serbs, Hungarians, Moldavians, Walachians and others.
In the 15th century the Moldavians erected here a fort, which the Poles took in the r7th century.
KISHINEV (Kishlanow of the Moldavians),a town of south-west Russia, capital of the government of Bessarabia, situated on the right bank of the Byk, a tributary of the Dniester, and on the railway between Odessa and Jassy in Rumania, 120 m.
At the beginning of the 19th century it was but a poor village, and in 1812 when it was acquired by Russia from Moldavia it had only 7000 inhabitants; twenty years later its population numbered 35,000, while in 1862 it had with its suburbs 92,000 inhabitants, and in 1900 125,787, composed of the most varied nationalities - Moldavians, Walachians, Russians, Jews (43%), Bulgarians, Tatars, Germans and Gypsies.
It was owing to Laski's intrigues that the new hospodar of Moldavia, Petrylo, after doing homage to the Porte, intervened in the struggle as the foe of both Ferdinand and Sigismund, and besieged the Grand Hetman of the Crown, Jan Tarnowski, in Obertyn, where, however, the Moldavians (August 22, 1531) sustained a crushing defeat, and Petrylo was slain.
In the 15th and 16th centuries it suffered frequently from the invasions of Tatars, Moldavians and Turks; and in 1672 the hetman of the Cossacks, Doroshenko, assisted by Sultan Mahommed IV.
It consists of various races, nearly one-half (920,919 in 1897) being Moldavians, the others Little Russians, Jews (37% in the towns and 1 2% in the rural districts), Bulgarians (103,225), Germans (60, 206), with some Gypsies (Zigani), Greeks, Armenians, Tatars and Albanians.
Europe was now aroused; Lazar, king of Servia, formed an alliance with the Albanians, the Hungarians and the Moldavians against the Turks.
But the long Turkish terrorism had done its work, and at the approach of a Turkish and Tatar host the greater part of the Moldavians deserted their voivode.
On the death of Nicholas Firlej in 1526 Tarnowski became grand hetman of the crown, or Polish commander-in-chief, and in that capacity won his greatest victory at Obertyn (22nd August 1531) over the Moldavians, Turks and Tatars, for which he received a handsome subsidy and an ovation similar to that of an ancient Roman triumphator.